Toxic Mercury Facts

 Did you know...

  • Mercury is a known toxic substance that is harmful to humans, especially pregnant women, infants and children.
     

  • A growing number of experts including physicians, dentists and scientists believe there is no safe amount of mercury for the human body.
     

  • The Federal Government continues to downplay the risks of mercury in vaccines, prescription drugs, over-the-counter preparations and dental amalgams despite the growing body of scientific evidence confirming its harm.
     

  • In December 2004, the Institute of NeuroToxicology and Neurological Disorders stated:

     “Childhood disabilities from chemical exposure during development are often not treatable and therefore must be prevented.” 

    Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry

    "It is time for public health action...we may not have a smoking gun, but there are bullets all over the floor."
    Christopher DeRosa, Ph.D., Director of ATSDR Division of Toxicology
     

     Toxicological Profile for Mercury
        March 1999

    The ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry) toxicologic profile succinctly characterizes the toxicological and adverse health effects information for the hazardous substance, mercury .  Each peer-reviewed profile identifies and and reviews the key literature that describes a hazardous substance's toxicological properties.  Other pertinent literature is also presented, but is described in less detail than the key studies.  The profile is not intended to be an exhaustive document; however, more comprehensive sources of specialty information are referenced.

    MERCURY COMPOUNDS

    “Methyl, ethyl, n-propyl & perhaps n-butyl mercury derivatives are virulent neurotoxins on either acute or chronic exposure.  They are especially hazardous because of their volatility, their ability to penetrate epithelial & blood-brain barriers & their persistence in vivo."

     [Gosselin, R.E., R.P. Smith, H.C. Hodge. Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products. 5th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1984.III-267]**PEER REVIEWED**

     CASRN: NO CAS RN

    This record contains general information for the mercury ion and compounds, including statements referenced in the literature to organic mercury compounds, inorganic mercury salts, etc. For compound-specific information, refer to the appropriate individual records as listed in the RELATED HSDB RECORDS (RELT) field; for information on the metal itself, to the MERCURY, ELEMENTAL record.

    For other data, click on the Table of Contents

    Human Health Effects:

    Toxicity Summary:

    IDENTIFICATION: In its elemental form, mercury is a heavy silvery liquid at room temperature and has a very high vapor pressure. Mercury vapor is more soluble in plasma, whole blood, and hemoglobin than in distilled water, where it dissolves only slightly. The major natural sources of mercury are degassing of the earth's crust, emissions from volcanoes, and evaporation from natural bodies of water. (The world-wide mining of mercury is estimated to yield about 10,000 tons per year. The activities lead to some losses of mercury and direct discharges to the atmosphere). Other important sources are fossil fuel combustion, metal sulfide ore smelting, gold refining, cement production, refuse incineration, and industrial applications of metals. A major use of mercury is as a cathode in the electrolysis of sodium chloride. Mercury is used in the electrical industry, in control instruments in the home and industry, and in laboratory and medical instruments. A very large amount of mercury is used for the extraction of gold. Dental silver amalgam for tooth filling contains large amounts of mercury. Use of skin-lightening soap and creams can give rise to substantial mercury exposure. Occupational exposure to inorganic mercury has been investigated in chloralkali plants, mercury mines, thermometer factories, refineries, and in dental clinics. High mercury levels have been reported for all these occupational exposure situations, although levels vary according to work environment conditions.

    HUMAN EXPOSURE: The general population is primarily exposed to mercury through the diet and dental amalgam. Acute inhalation exposure to mercury vapor may be followed by chest pains, dyspnea, coughing, hemoptysis, and sometimes interstitial pneumonitis leading to death. (The ingestion of mercuric compounds, in particular mercuric chloride, has caused ulcerative gastroenteritis and acute tubular necrosis causing death from anuria where dialysis was not available). The central nervous system is the critical organ for mercury vapor exposure. Subacute exposure has given rise to psychotic reactions characterized by delerium, hallucinations, and suicidal tendency. Occupational exposure has resulted in erethism as the principal feature of a broad ranging functional disturbance. The kidney is the critical organ following the ingestion of inorganic divalent mercury salts. Occupational exposure to metallic mercury has long been associated with the development of proteinuria. Both metallic mercury vapor and mercury compounds have given rise to contact dermatitis. Mercurial pharmaceuticals have been responsible for Pink disease (acrodynia) in children, and mercury vapor exposure may be a cause of "Kawasaki" disease. Results of both human and animal studies indicate that about 80% of inhaled metallic mercury vapour is retained by the body, whereas liquid metallic mercury is poorly absorbed via the gastrointestinal tract.

    ANIMAL STUDIES: Evidence of damage to brain, kidney, heart, and lungs have been reported in rabbits exposed acutely to metallic mercury vapor at certain concentrations. Both reversible and irreversible toxic effects may be caused by mercury and its compounds. In two studies, tremor and behavioural effects were observed in rabbits and rats after several weeks of exposure to metallic mercury vapour. Depending upon the animal strain tested, either auto-immunity or immunosuppression is observed. The most sensitive adverse effect caused by mercuric mercury is the formation of mercuric-mercury-induced auto-immune glomerulonephritis. Mercuric chloride was found to induce gene mutations in mouse lymphoma cells and DNA damage in rat and mouse fibroblasts. The World Health Organization reported no evidence that inorganic mercury is carcinogenic. The neurotoxic effect seen after exposure to metallic mercury vapour is attributable to the divalent mercury ion formed through oxidation in the brain tissue. Significantly more mercury is transported to the brain of mice and monkeys after the inhalation of elemental mercury than after the intravenous injection of equivalent doses of the mercuric form.
    [World Health Organization/International Programme on Chemical Safety. Environmental Health Criteria 118 Inorganic Mercury. pp. 13-21, 68-83 (1991)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Evidence for Carcinogenicity:

    Evaluation: There is inadequate evidence in humans for the carcinogenicity of mercury and mercury compounds. There is inadequate evidence in experimental animals for the carcinogenicity of metallic mercury. There is limited evidence in experimental animals for the carcinogenicity of mercuric chloride. There is sufficient evidence in experimental animals for the carcinogenicity of methylmercury chloride. In making the overall evaluation, the Working Group took into account evidence that methylmercury compounds are similar with regard to absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, genotoxicity and other forms of toxicity. Overall evaluation: Methylmercury compounds are possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B). Metallic mercury and inorganic mercury compounds are not classifiable as to their carcinogenicity to humans. (Group 3). /Mercury and mercury compounds/
    [IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work).V58 324 (1993)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Human Toxicity Excerpts:

    SYMPTOMATOLOGY: A. First phase after ingestion of inorganic mercury salts. 1) Burning pain, sense of constriction, and ashen discoloration of the mucous membrane in mouth and pharynx, occurring immediately after the ingestion of corrosive mercury salts. 2) Within a few minutes intense epigastric pain, followed by diffuse abdominal pain and associated with almost continuous vomiting of mucoid material, which frequently contains blood and shreds of mucous membrane. 3) Severe purging, with liquid, bloody feces and considerable tenesmus. 4) Metallic taste, excessive salivation and thirst. 5) A rapid, weak pulse; Shallow breathing; Pallor; Prostration, collapse, and death. 6) Signs and symptoms listed above are not encountered with mercury compounds of low irritancy or with portals of entry other than the mouth. In these cases the first clinical evidence of poisoning may be phase 2.
    [Gosselin, R.E., R.P. Smith, H.C. Hodge. Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products. 5th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1984.III-270]**PEER REVIEWED**

    SYMPTOMATOLOGY: Second phase. If death does not intervene, phase 2 begins in 1-3 days in untreated cases (unless vomiting so effectively removed the poison that absorption was negligible). 1) The gastroenteritis described above tends to subside in about 36 hr under the influence of local treatment. 2) Mercurial stomatitis may or may not appear within 24-36 hr. It is characterized by a glossitis and ulcerative gingivitis. Salivation is marked. In chronic neglected cases severe infections, loosening of teeth, and necrosis of the jaw are major complications. 3) Necrosis of the renal tubules is evident within 2-3 days. In sequence, the results are transient polyuria, albuminuria, cylindruria, hematuria, anuria, and eventual death associated with azotemia and renal acidosis or recovery within 10-14 days.
    [Gosselin, R.E., R.P. Smith, H.C. Hodge. Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products. 5th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1984.III-270]**PEER REVIEWED**

    SYMPTOMATOLOGY: 4) Especially in untreated cases, a membranous colitis may first appear many days after the original exposure. It is evidenced by dysentery, tenesmus, ulceration of the colonic mucosa, and hemorrhage. Liver necrosis sometimes develops. In neglected cases collapse and death may occur weeks after the start of the illness. 5) Rarely neurologic signs and symptoms may appear late in the course of a slow convalescence after an acute exposure.
    [Gosselin, R.E., R.P. Smith, H.C. Hodge. Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products. 5th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1984.III-270]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Nervous symptoms are prominent & severe, though sometimes transitory; they include headache, vertigo, ataxia, decrease in the visual fields, delirium, & paresis. /Ethyl mercury phosphate/
    [Gosselin, R.E., R.P. Smith, H.C. Hodge. Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products. 5th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1984.II-136]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Methyl, ethyl, n-propyl & perhaps n-butyl mercury derivatives are virulent neurotoxins on either acute or chronic exposure. They are especially hazardous because of their volatility, their ability to penetrate epithelial & blood-brain barriers & their persistence in vivo. /Alkyl mercury/
    [Gosselin, R.E., R.P. Smith, H.C. Hodge. Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products. 5th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1984.III-267]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Signs & symptoms in acutely poisoned men ... /from exposure to aryl or alkoxyalkyl mercury compounds/ have not been adequately described. Local irritant effects are well established, such as dermatitis & burns from skin exposures to phenylmercuric salts. Blistering has occurred when methoxyethyl mercury acetate was applied to the skin in high concn, & pulmonary symptoms have arisen when methoxyethyl mercury oxalate or silicate was inhaled. /Aryl and alkoxyalkyl mercury compounds/
    [Gosselin, R.E., R.P. Smith, H.C. Hodge. Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products. 5th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1984.III-266]**PEER REVIEWED**

    In terms of systemic effects /from exposure to aryl or alkoxyalkyl mercury compounds/ the only well documented acute reaction is sudden death during intravenous mercurial diuretic therapy. Most of these deaths were ascribed to cardiac arrest or ventricular fibrillation, but rarely respiratory failure was observed without cardiac manifestations. Hypersensitivity reactions have also been reported. /Aryl and alkoxyalkyl mercury/
    [Gosselin, R.E., R.P. Smith, H.C. Hodge. Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products. 5th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1984.III-266]**PEER REVIEWED**

    No unequivocal central neural effects have been recognized in acute exposures. Even an attempted suicide with phenyl mercury is said to have elicited no significant neurological signs. The same was true of a suicidal ingestion of 5.7 g of methoxyethyl mercury chloride, which elicited vomiting & chemical burns of the mouth & throat but little else. Most intoxications by aryl & alkoxyalkyl mercury, however, have not been detected until after repeated or continuous exposures of long duration. Even then, the number of reported poisonings, aside from skin rashes, is remarkably low. /Aryl and alkoxyalkyl mercury/
    [Gosselin, R.E., R.P. Smith, H.C. Hodge. Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products. 5th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1984.III-266]**PEER REVIEWED**

    In subacute & chronic poisonings & probably sometimes in the late stages of acute poisonings, these organomercurials /aryl & alkoxyalkyl mercury/ appear to produce intoxication syndromes that are in practice indistinguishable from those induced by inorganic mercury. ... Death in renal failure, as well as the production of a nephrotic syndrome, has been ascribed to mercurial diuretics. Nephrosis ... appeared in a 60 yr old man who for 5 years had handled grain treated with methoxyethyl mercury silicate. A 5 yr old boy exposed to a methoxyethyl mercury seed disinfectant developed acrodynia. As in chronic inorganic mercury poisoning, neurological signs (tremor, motor & sensory nerve disorders) have been detected in a few individuals chronically exposed to these forms of organic mercury. A 39 yr old farmer who had used no precautions in dusting oat seeds with phenylmercuric acetate over a period of 5 to 6 years & who excreted large amounts of mercury in the urine died of an apparently progressive neurologic disease resembling amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Five other farmers similarly exposed were said to have various motor disabilities. /Aryl and alkoxyalkyl mercury/
    [Gosselin, R.E., R.P. Smith, H.C. Hodge. Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products. 5th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1984.III-266]**PEER REVIEWED**

    These two classes of organomercurials /aryl & alkoxyalkyl mercury/ are rather similar in terms of toxicity, instability in vivo, tissue distribution, retention & excretion; they differ markedly from alkyl mercury compounds ... /Aryl and alkoxyalkyl mercury/
    [Gosselin, R.E., R.P. Smith, H.C. Hodge. Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products. 5th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1984.III-265]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Available data point to great similarities in symptoms & signs of poisoning due to ethylmercury & methylmercury. Most detailed information deals with methylmercury. There is no sharp difference between acute & chronic poisoning from exposure to methylmercury compounds. Once a toxic dose has been absorbed in the body, it is retained for a long time, causing functional disturbances & damage. On the other hand, a single toxic dose does not produce signs or symptoms until after a latency period, which may vary from 1 to several weeks. Two clinical types of intoxication may be discerned, a prenatal & a postnatal type. These give rise to different kinds of signs & symptoms. /Alkylmercury compounds/
    [Friberg, L., Nordberg, G.F., Kessler, E. and Vouk, V.B. (eds). Handbook of the Toxicology of Metals. 2nd ed. Vols I, II.: Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., 1986.V2 426]**PEER REVIEWED**

    The clinical picture in prenatal methylmercury poisoning is that of an unspecific infantile cerebral palsy, involving ataxic motor disturbances & mental symptoms. Upon autopsy, the brain is found to be hypoplastic with a symmetrical atrophy of cerebrum & cerebellum. Decreased numbers of neurons & distortion of the cytoarchitecture in the cortical areas are histological features. The changes coincide with those of cerebral palsy of unknown etiology. Similar findings have been reported in cases of ethylmercury poisoning. In less severe cases, psychomotor retardation has been observed, as revealed by a delayed debut of walking & talking by more than 12 months, & an increased incidence of seizures. In-fish consuming populations, a moderate increase in hair-mercury levels during pregnancy has been assoc with impaired psychomotor test performance of the child at 4-5 years of age. /Alkylmercury compounds/
    [Friberg, L., Nordberg, G.F., Kessler, E. and Vouk, V.B. (eds). Handbook of the Toxicology of Metals. 2nd ed. Vols I, II.: Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., 1986.V2 427]**PEER REVIEWED**

    The clinical signs of postnatal intoxication due to methylmercury are characterized by sensitivity disturbances with paresthesia in the distal extremities, in the tongue & around the lips. These are early signs occurring after slight intoxication. In more severe intoxication, ataxia, concentric constriction of the visual field, impairment of hearing, & extrapyramidal symptoms may appear. In severe cases, clonic seizures have been observed. The pathological changes in the CNS are characterized by general neuron degeneration in the cerebral cortex with gliosis, most pronounced in the calcarine, the precentral & postcentral areas. These changes are accompanied by atrophy of the cerebral cortex. In the cerebellar cortex, less pronounced changes, involving a loss of granular cells in the neocerebellum, may be encountered. /Alkylmercury compounds/
    [Friberg, L., Nordberg, G.F., Kessler, E. and Vouk, V.B. (eds). Handbook of the Toxicology of Metals. 2nd ed. Vols I, II.: Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., 1986.V2 427]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Considering that methylmercury is excreted by breast milk, postnatal poisoning of the nursed child can easily arise. Symptoms for this type of poisoning are similar to those of the adult. It is, however, unclear to what extent poisoning during this period may, except for neuron damage, give rise to inhibition of the development & maturation of the brain. Some reports seem to indicate that regeneration & compensatory adaptation during this period are better than during childhood. When neurological signs due to methylmercury poisoning appear, the duration of exposure is of importance for recovery & rehabilitation. The outlook for recovery & for rehabilitation seems to be better in case of acute exposure compared to prolonged exposure. /Alkylmercury compounds/
    [Friberg, L., Nordberg, G.F., Kessler, E. and Vouk, V.B. (eds). Handbook of the Toxicology of Metals. 2nd ed. Vols I, II.: Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., 1986.V2 427]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Possible distinctions between poisoning by methyl mercury & ethyl mercury. There is some indication that, compared to methyl compounds, the illness produced by ethylmercuric compounds involves relatively greater injury to the GI system (aphthous stomatitis, catarrahal gingivitis, nausea, liquid stool, pain, & laboratory evidence of liver disorder) & the cardiovascular & hematopoietic systems & less disorder of sensation & coordination. The contrast between the two has been pointed out on the basis of outbreaks /of poisoning/ in Iraq, the one in 1960 caused by ethyl mercury & the one in 1972 caused by methyl mercury. However, poisoning by ethyl mercury may be fatal, & those who survive may have residual symptoms. A description of poisoning by ethyl mercury in children makes it appear impossible to distinguish poisoning by ethyl & methyl mercury. At present it is unclear whether an important, clinical distinction is justified between poisoning by ethyl & methyl mercury either in adults or in children. /Alkyl mercury compounds/
    [Hayes, Wayland J., Jr. Pesticides Studied in Man. Baltimore/London: Williams and Wilkins, 1982.22]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Acute poisoning by organic mercury has been reported infrequently in man, although cases of such poisoning by methyl & other alkyl compounds have occurred. There have been many cases of chronic poisoning involving organic mercury. The classical description of poisoning by an alkyl mercury compound is that of ... headache; paresthesia of the tongue, lips, fingers, & toes; & other nonspecific dysfunction. In mild cases, the symptoms do not develop beyond this point, & in such instances they usually disappear gradually. /Alkyl mercury compounds/
    [Hayes, Wayland J., Jr. Pesticides Studied in Man. Baltimore/London: Williams and Wilkins, 1982.21]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Some but not all workers equally exposed to alkyl mercury compounds complain of a metallic taste in the mouth & slight gastrointestinal disturbances, such as excessive flatus & diarrhea. However, the acute symptoms assoc with irritation of the GI system & renal failure caused by inorganic mercury compounds are seldom observed in poisoning by alkyl mercury compounds & then almost exclusively in acute poisoning. Even the mild digestive disturbances & sore mouth seen in moderate, chronic, occupational poisoning by inorganic mercury are relatively rare. Instead, the nervous symptoms appear 1st, sometimes after relatively slight exposure & after weeks or months of latency. /Alkyl mercury compounds/
    [Hayes, Wayland J., Jr. Pesticides Studied in Man. Baltimore/London: Williams and Wilkins, 1982.21]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Early signs of more severe poisoning include fine tremors of the extended hands, loss of side vision, & slight loss of coordination, esp with the eyes closed as in the finger-to-nose test. Incoordination is esp noticeable in speech, writing, & gait. Incoordination may progress to the point of inability to stand or carry out other voluntary movements. Occasionally there is muscle atrophy & flexure contractures. In other cases, there are generalized myoclonic movements. There may be difficulty in understanding ordinary speech, although hearing & the understanding of slow deliberate speech often remain unaffected. Irritability & bad temper are frequently present & may progress to mania. Occasionally the mental picture deteriorates to stupor or coma. Especially in children, mental retardation may be added to the symptoms of poisoning already mentioned. /Alkyl mercury compounds/
    [Hayes, Wayland J., Jr. Pesticides Studied in Man. Baltimore/London: Williams and Wilkins, 1982.21]**PEER REVIEWED**

    ... /Chromosome/ aberration & aneuploidy in ethylmercury-exposed workers /have been reported/. /Alkylmercury compounds/
    [Friberg, L., Nordberg, G.F., Kessler, E. and Vouk, V.B. (eds). Handbook of the Toxicology of Metals. 2nd ed. Vols I, II.: Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., 1986.V2 428]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Secondary poisoning can arise from the ingestion of the flesh of animals which have been fed on mercurial fungicides; a farming family has been poisoned in this way. /Organic mercury compounds/
    [Clarke, M. L., D. G. Harvey and D. J. Humphreys. Veterinary Toxicology. 2nd ed. London: Bailliere Tindall, 1981.62]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Alkyl mercury salts are more toxic than are elemental Hg (liquid or vapor) & inorganic Hg+2 salts. /Alkyl mercury salts/
    [Venugopal, B. and T.D. Luckey. Metal Toxicity in Mammals, 2. New York: Plenum Press, 1978.92]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Inorganic, ionic mercury can produce severe acute toxicity. Precipitation of mucous membrane proteins by mercuric salts results in an ashen-gray appearance of the mucosa of the mouth, pharynx and intestine and also causes intense pain, which may be accompained by vomiting. ... Systemic toxicity may begin within a few hours after exposure to mercury and last for days. A strong metallic taste is followed by stomatitis with gingival irritation, foul breath and loosening of the teeth. The most serious and, unfortunately, the most frequently encountered systemic effect of inorganic mercury is renal toxicity. Renal tubular necrosis occurs after acute exposure, leading to oliguria or anuria. /Inorganic mercury/
    [Gilman, A.G., L.S.Goodman, and A. Gilman. (eds.). Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 7th ed. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., 1985.1612]**PEER REVIEWED**

    DISTURBANCES OF EYES IN MERCURY POISONING CONSISTS OF DISCOLORATION OF CORNEA & LENS, TREMOR OF EYELIDS, & POSSIBLY ... DISTURBANCES OF VISION & EXTRAOCULAR MUSCLES. ... IN VERY YOUNG CHILDREN ACRODYNIA. ... CHARACTERTISTIC BY OCULAR SYMPTOMS ... PHOTOPHOBIA ... CONJUNCTIVITIS, ITCHING ... KERATITIS ... /INORGANIC MERCURY/
    [Grant, W.M. Toxicology of the Eye. 3rd ed. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publisher, 1986.583]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Lethal Blood Level: The concn of organic mercury present in the blood (serum or plasma) that has been reported to cause death in humans is: >0.06%; >0.6 ug/ml. /Organic mercury/
    [Winek, C.L. Drug and Chemical Blood-Level Data 1985. Pittsburgh, PA: Allied Fischer Scientific, 1985.]**PEER REVIEWED**

    The two most widely known epidemics of methyl mercury poisoning occurred in Minamata Bay and Niigata, Japan in 1953 to the early sixties. These episodes were caused by the industrial release of methyl and other mercury (Hg) compounds into the neighboring waters, followed by accumulation of the Hg by edible fish. The median level of total Hg in fish caught was estimated between 10-11 mg/kg fresh weight. By 1974, a total of 1200 cases of methyl mercury poisoning were identified, of which 55 proved fatal. Highest concentration of Hg were found in the blood and hair.
    [WHO; Environ Health Criteria: Mercury p.90-107 (1976)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Idiosyncratic reactions to mercury and mercury cmpd on local contact have been seen in connection with mercury applied locally to skin and mucous membranes. Typical manifestations are erythemas and contact dermatitis. ... A special form of hypersensitivity was found in children between 4 months and 4 years of age. This syndrome, called acrodynia or pink disease, is characterized by a general rash over the body. Other symptoms are chills, swelling & irritation of hands, feet cheeks & nose, usually followed by desquamation, loss of hair & ulceration. In addition to skin symptoms, the disease features irritability, photophobia, sleeplessness & profuse perspiration, which may lead to dehydration. Perspiration is accompanied by dilated & enlarged sweat glands & desquamation of soles & palms. Hyperplasia & hyperkeratosis of skin in peripheral parts of extremities are seen. ... Acrodynia cases ... usually show increased levels of mercury in urine (above 50 ug/l).
    [Friberg, L., Nordberg, G.F., Kessler, E. and Vouk, V.B. (eds). Handbook of the Toxicology of Metals. 2nd ed. Vols I, II.: Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., 1986.413]**PEER REVIEWED**

    The most extensive episodes of mercury poisoning have resulted from contamination of bread made from cereal grains treated with alkyl-mercury fungicides. These incidents have occurred in Iraq, Pakistan, Guatemala, and on limited scale in other countries. The largest of these episodes occurred in Iraq, 1971-72. It involved some 6,000 cases and 500 deaths. The mean methyl-mercury content of wheat was found to be 7.9 mg/kg (3.7-14.9 mg/kg). In the most severely affected group of the population, the highest daily intake of Hg was about 130 ug/kg; The average period of consumption ranged from 43-68 days. /Alkyl mercury fungicide/
    [WHO; Environ Health Criteria: Mercury p.90-107 (1976)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    THERE ... IS A DISEASE OF INFANTS KNOWN AS ACRODYNIA OR "PINK DISEASE" IN WHICH INORGANIC MERCURY SEEMS TO PLAY A ROLE. IT IS CHARACTERIZED BY NEUROPSYCHIATRIC DISTURBANCES, PERIPHERAL VASCULAR EFFECTS, DISTURBANCES OF SENSATION OF THE EXTREMITIES, STOMATITIS, & OTHER VAGUE, NONSPECIFIC SIGNS. /INORGANIC MERCURY/
    [Doull, J., C.D.Klassen, and M.D. Amdur (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. 3rd ed., New York: Macmillan Co., Inc., 1986.426]**PEER REVIEWED**

    MERCURIALS EVEN IN LOW CONCENTRATIONS ARE CAPABLE OF INACTIVATING SULFHYDRYL ENZYMES AND THUS OF INTERFERING WITH CELLULAR METABOLISM AND FUNCTION. /MERCURIALS/
    [Gilman, A.G., L.S.Goodman, and A. Gilman. (eds.). Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 7th ed. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., 1985.1611]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Oral ingestion ... causing severe abdominal cramps, bloody diarrhea, and suppression of urine ... corrosive ulceration, bleeding, and necrosis of the gastrointestinal tract ... shock and circulatory collapse ... renal failure occurs within 24 hrs ...
    [Doull, J., C.D.Klassen, and M.D. Amdur (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. 3rd ed., New York: Macmillan Co., Inc., 1986.607]**PEER REVIEWED**

    UPON ACCIDENTAL OR SUICIDAL INGESTION OF SUBLIMATE OR OTHER MERCURIC SALTS THE CRITICAL ORGANS ARE KIDNEY & INTESTINAL TRACT. ... IF PT SURVIVES GI DAMAGE, CRITICAL ORGAN WILL BE KIDNEY. WITHIN 24 HR, RENAL FAILURE DUE TO NECROSIS OF PROXIMAL TUBULAR EPITHELIUM, WHICH DEVELOPS INTO ANURIA & UREMIA, OCCURS. /MERCURIC SALTS/
    [Friberg, L., Nordberg, G.F., Kessler, E. and Vouk, V.B. (eds). Handbook of the Toxicology of Metals. 2nd ed. Vols I, II.: Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., 1986.412]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Following exposure to mercuric Hg(2+) salts ... by inhalation of dusts ... kidney is critical organ of injury. Although site of diuretic action of Hg(2+) salts has not been demonstrated, it is suspected to be the proximal tubules. /Mercuric salts/
    [Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982.1777]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Systemic - The central nervous system, including the brain, is the principal target tissue for this group of toxic compounds. Severe poisoning may produce irreversible brain damage resulting in loss of higher functions. The effects of chronic poisoning with alkyl mercury compounds are progressive. In the early stages, there are fine tremors of the hands, and in some cases, of the face and arms. With continued exposure, tremors may become coarse and convulsive; scanning speech with moderate slurring and difficulty in pronunciation may also occur. The worker may then develop an unsteady gait of a spastic nature which can progress to severe ataxia of the arms and legs. Sensory disturbances including tunnel vision, blindness, and deafness are also common. A later symptom, constriction of the visual fields, is rarely reversible and may be associated with loss of understanding and reason which makes the victim completely out of touch with his environment. Severe cerebral effects have been seen in infants born to mothers who had eaten large amounts of methyl mercury-contaminated fish. /Methyl mercury compounds/
    [Sittig M; Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals p.421 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Phenylmercury absorbed through the skin from contaminated diapers affected urinary excretion in infants in Buenos Aires. The effects were reversible and quantitatively related to the concn of urinary Hg. /Phenylmercury cmpd/
    [Gotelli CA et al; Science 227 (4687): 638-640 (1985)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    RENAL FUNCTION MAY BE DISTURBED WITHIN A FEW MINUTES AFTER POISON REACHES CIRCULATION. IF CIRCULATION IS ADEQUATE, 1ST RESPONSE OF KIDNEY MAY BE A DIURESIS CAUSED BY INHIBITION OF TUBULAR REABSORPTIVE FUNCTION. SOON, RENAL DAMAGE IS SO EXTENSIVE THAT OLIGURIA ... RESULTS. /MERCURIC SALTS/
    [Gilman, A. G., L. S. Goodman, and A. Gilman. (eds.). Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 6th ed. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc. 1980.1624]**PEER REVIEWED**

    ... /A disease/ prevalent among hatters ... manifested all the characteristics of mercurial poisoning: Swelling & ulceration of gums, loosening of teeth, fetid breath, abnormal flow of saliva & shaking palsy of limbs. ... Outstanding findings in these reports incl irritability, timidity, apprehension & restlessness; Vasomotor disorders ... incr reflexes, gingivitis & slight abnormalities in speech. Psychic disturbances were detected. ... Incr of systolic blood pressure, albuminuria, & hematuria were also noted.
    [Hamilton, A., and H. L. Hardy. Industrial Toxicology. 3rd ed. Acton, Mass.: Publishing Sciences Group, Inc., 1974.132]**PEER REVIEWED**

    ACUTE POISONING ... /MAY RESULT FROM/ INHALATION OF VAPORS OF ... ORGANIC MERCURIALS ... IF POISONING OCCURS BY INHALATION OF FUMES OF ... ORGANIC MERCURIALS, THE SYNDROME IS CHARACTERIZED BY PNEUMONITIS, LETHARGY OR RESTLESSNESS, FEVER, TACHYPNEA, COUGH, CHEST PAIN, CYANOSIS, DIARRHEA & VOMITING; ATELECTASIS, EMPHYSEMA, HEMORRHAGE & PNEUMOTHORAX OFTEN FOLLOW. SYSTEMIC EFFECTS OF THE POISON START WITHIN FEW HOURS & MAY LAST FOR DAYS; DEATH MAY ENSUE. ... SYSTEMIC SIGNS OF ACUTE POISONING BY ... METHYLMERCURIC COMPOUNDS INCL THOSE REFERABLE TO CNS ... /ORGANIC MERCURIALS/
    [Gilman, A. G., L. S. Goodman, and A. Gilman. (eds.). Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 6th ed. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc. 1980.1624]**PEER REVIEWED**

    THE MOST CONSISTENT & PRONOUNCED EFFECTS OF /CHRONIC/ EXPOSURE TO ... SHORT-CHAIN ALKYLMERCURY COMPOUNDS SUCH AS METHYLMERCURY ARE ON CNS. EFFECTS ... ARE NEUROLOGICAL & PSYCHIATRIC. COMMON SYMPTOMS INCL DEPRESSION, IRRITABILITY, EXAGGERATED RESPONSE TO STIMULATION (ERETHISM), EXCESSIVE SHYNESS, INSOMNIA, EMOTIONAL INSTABILITY, FORGETFULNESS, CONFUSION, & VASOMOTOR DISTURBANCES SUCH AS EXCESSIVE PERSPIRATION & UNCONTROLLED BLUSHING. TREMORS ARE ALSO COMMON ... ... SENSORY EFFECTS ... OCCUR MORE CONSISTENTLY & AT LOWER LEVELS OF EXPOSURE. EARLIEST SIGN IS PARESTHESIA. AT ... HIGHER LEVELS OF EXPOSURE OTHER EFFECTS OCCUR, SUCH AS ATAXIA, CONSTRICTION OF VISUAL FIELD, DYSARTHRIA, & HEARING DEFECTS. THESE ALTERATIONS ARE IRREVERSIBLE WHEN POISONING IS SEVERE. NEUROPSYCHIATRIC EFFECTS ... ARE LIKELY TO INVOLVE SPONTANEOUS FITS OF LAUGHING & CRYING & INTELLECTUAL DETERIORATION. /ALKYLMERCURY COMPOUNDS/
    [Gilman, A. G., L. S. Goodman, and A. Gilman. (eds.). Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 6th ed. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc. 1980.1624]**PEER REVIEWED**

    The alkyl mercury compounds are strong irritants of the skin & may cause blisters or other dermatitis with or without assoc systemic illness. /Alkyl mercury compounds/
    [Hayes, Wayland J., Jr. Pesticides Studied in Man. Baltimore/London: Williams and Wilkins, 1982.22]**PEER REVIEWED**

    AMONG INORG CMPD, ELEMENTAL MERCURY & DIVALENT MERCURY SALT ARE THE CMPD OF TOXICOLOGICAL INTEREST. IT IS DOUBTFUL WHETHER MERCUROUS MERCURY HAS ANY SURVIVAL IN THE ORGANISM, ALTHOUGH AT PRESENT POSSIBILITY ... THAT MERCUROUS MERCURY MAY BE INTERMEDIATE IN REDOX TRANSFORMATION OF ELEMENTAL & MERCURIC MERCURY OR VICE VERSA IN BODY. /INORGANIC MERCURY CMPD/
    [Friberg, L., Nordberg, G.F., Kessler, E. and Vouk, V.B. (eds). Handbook of the Toxicology of Metals. 2nd ed. Vols I, II.: Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., 1986.389]**PEER REVIEWED**

    MOLECULAR STRUCTURE OF THE MERCURY CMPD, ITS STABILITY IN THE ORGANISM & ITS ROUTES OF BIOTRANSFORMATION & EXCRETION WILL GOVERN TOXICOLOGICAL PROPERTIES FOR THE HIGHER ORGANISMS. THUS EACH MERCURY CMPD HAS ITS OWN TOXICOLOGY IN RELATION TO DOSE-EFFECT & DOSE-RESPONSE RELATIONSHIPS.
    [Friberg, L., Nordberg, G.F., Kessler, E. and Vouk, V.B. (eds). Handbook of the Toxicology of Metals. 2nd ed. Vols I, II.: Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., 1986.389]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Mercury(2+) compounds are more toxic than the mercury(1+) compounds by all routes of admin (except mercuric nitrate by way of ip route); no species resistance to oral LD was observed; the order of toxicity by ip admin practically repeated oral admin. Toxicity of mercury(2+) compounds was less uniform than of mercury(1+) compounds; and solubility of the compounds had no effect on the toxicity. Water sol mercurous nitrate was 7 fold less toxic than mercuric nitrate, while being less toxic than the insol mercurous chloride.
    [Trakhtenberg IM et al; Gig Tr Prof Zabol (7): 27-30 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Mercuric salts are the most toxic form of mercury. /Mercuric salts/
    [Gilman, A.G., L.S.Goodman, and A. Gilman. (eds.). Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 7th ed. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., 1985.1611]**PEER REVIEWED**

    IN GENERAL, TOXICITY DEPENDS UPON RELEASE OF MERCURIC ION. /MERCURY/
    [Gosselin, R.E., R.P. Smith, H.C. Hodge. Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products. 5th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1984.II-134]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Soluble salts have violent corrosive effects on skin and mucous membranes. /Soluble mercury salts/
    [The Merck Index. 10th ed. Rahway, New Jersey: Merck Co., Inc., 1983.842]**PEER REVIEWED**

    When deposited on the skin, they give no warning, and if contact is maintained, can cause second-degree burns. Sensitization may occur. /Methyl mercury compounds/
    [Sittig M; Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals p.421 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    MERCURIC SALTS ARE THE MORE IRRITATING & ACUTELY TOXIC FORM OF THE METAL. /MERCURIC SALTS/
    [Hardman, J.G., L.E. Limbird, P.B. Molinoff, R.W. Ruddon, A.G. Goodman (eds.). Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 9th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1996.1655]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Either acute or chronic exposure may produce permanent changes to affected organs and organ systems. Acute poisoning due to mercury vapors affects the lung primarily, in the form of acute interstitial pnuemonitis, bronchitis, and bronchiolitis. ... In general, chronic exposure produces four classical signs: gingivitis, sialorrhea, increased irritability, and muscular tremors. Rarely are all four seen in together in an individual case. /Mercury vapors/
    [Sittig, M. Handbook of Toxic And Hazardous Chemicals. Park Ridge, NJ: Noyes Data Corporation, 1981.424]**PEER REVIEWED**

    SECONDARY POISONING CAN ARISE FROM INGESTION OF FLESH OF ANIMALS WHICH HAVE BEEN FED ON MERCURIAL FUNGICIDES; A FARMING FAMILY HAS BEEN POISONED IN THIS WAY... /MERCURIAL FUNGICIDES/
    [Clarke, M. L., D. G. Harvey and D. J. Humphreys. Veterinary Toxicology. 2nd ed. London: Bailliere Tindall, 1981.62]**PEER REVIEWED**

    IN HUMANS THE NEUROTOXIC SYMPTOMS OF METHYL MERCURY SALTS, THE HUNTER-RUSSEL SYNDROME, INVOLVE FOCAL CEREBRAL & CEREBELLAR ATROPHY. THE GRANULAR CELL LAYER OF NEOCEREBELLUM IS AFFECTED FOLLOWED BY CORTICAL ATROPHY OF AREA STRIATA, WHICH LEADS TO BLINDNESS. /METHYL MERCURY SALTS/
    [Venugopal, B. and T.D. Luckey. Metal Toxicity in Mammals, 2. New York: Plenum Press, 1978.95]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Phenylmercury absorbed through the skin from contaminated diapers affected urinary excretion in infants in Buenos Aires. The effects were reversible and quantitatively related to the concn of urinary mercury. /Phenylmercury cmpd/
    [Gotelli CA et al; Science 227 (4687): 638-40 (1985)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Exposure of the skin to a concentrated solution of phenylmercury cmpd may cause chemical burns with blistering. /Organo-mercurials/
    [International Labour Office. Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety. Vols. I&II. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Office, 1983.1336]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Chronic poisoning with inorganic mercury causes ... mercurialentis (a colored reflex from lens) ... but does not indicate intoxication. ... Nonspecific symptoms such as anorexia, wt loss, anemia & muscular weakness are also assoc with chronic exposure ... /Inorganic mercury salts/
    [Gilman, A. G., L. S. Goodman, and A. Gilman. (eds.). Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 6th ed. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc. 1980.1625]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Corrosive ulceration, bleeding, and necrosis of the gastrointestinal tract are usually accompanied by shock and circulatory collapse. If the patient survives the gastrointestinal damage, renal failure occurs within 24 hours owing to necrosis ... followed by oliguria, anuria, and uremia. /Mercuric salts/
    [Klaassen, C.D., M.O. Amdur, Doull J. (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons. 5th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1995.711]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Inorganic forms of mercury ... produce symptoms of metallic taste, burning, irritation, salivation, vomiting, diarrhea, upper gstrointestinal tract edema, abdominal pain, and hemorrhage. /Inorganic mercury/
    [Amdur, M.O., J. Doull, C.D. Klaasen (eds). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. 4th ed. New York, NY: Pergamon Press, 1991.938]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Mercuric ... compounds locally applied to skin may cause idiosyncratic skin symptoms like erythema & more severe exfoliative dermatitis, involving whole body. A specific form of hypersensitivity is seen in children between 4 months & 4 years of age. This syndrome, called acrodynia or pink disease, is characterized by a general rash over body. Other symptoms are chills, swelling & irritation of hands, feet, cheeks & nose, usually followed by desquamation, loss of hair & ulceration. In addn to skin symptoms, the disease features irritability, photophobia, sleeplessness, & profuse perspiration, which may lead to dehydration. Perspiration is accompanied by dilated & enlarged sweat glands & desquamation of soles & palms. Hyperplasia & hyperkeratosis of skin in peripheral parts of extremities are seen. ... Acrodynia cases ... usually show incr levels of mercury in urine (above 50 ug/L).
    [Friberg, L., G.R. Nordberg, and V.B. Vouk. Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals. New York: Elsevier North Holland, 1979.518]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Lethal Blood Level: The concn of inorganic mercury present in blood (serum or plasma) that has been reported to cause death in humans is: 0.04-2.2 mg%; 0.4-2.2 ug/ml. /Inorganic mercury/
    [Winek CL; Drug & Chemical Blood Level Data Inorganic Mercury (1985)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    A 54 year old man who experienced a 2 day exposure to high levels of mercury vapor resulting in a urine concentration of 100 ug Hg/l developed a syndrome resembling amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The syndrome disappeared when the urinary mercury concentration returned to normal. /Mercury/
    [Clayton, G.D., F.E. Clayton (eds.) Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Volumes 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, 2E, 2F: Toxicology. 4th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1993-1994.2132]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Chloro-alkali plant workers exposed to mercury (probably inorganic) concentrations of <0.1 to 0.2.7 mg/cu m had significant exposure related effects that included weight loss, tremors, insomnia, and abnormal reflexes. At 0.1 mg/cu m there was a slight increase in insomnia and loss of appetite. There was no evidence of kidney damage in these workers. Additionally, based on blood and urine analyses from the workers, ... /it was/ estimated that a 0.1 mg Hg/cu m TWA exposure was correlated with 6 ug Hg/100 ml of blood and with 250 ug/l of urine. /Inorganic mercury/
    [Clayton, G.D., F.E. Clayton (eds.) Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Volumes 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, 2E, 2F: Toxicology. 4th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1993-1994.2133]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Six of 75 workers exposed to 0.05 to 0.1 mg Hg/cu m of mercury vapor in a glass manufacturing plant reported insomnia, and one had tremors. Hyperexcitability was observed in 33 percent of the workers exposed to mercury vapor at concentrations above 0.05 mg Hg/cu m, whereas only 8 percent of the workers exposed below this concentration were hyperexcitable. Tremors were observed in 20 percent of the workers in both groups. Occupational mercury exposures resulting in tremors are associated with urinary mercury concentrations ranging from 50 to 200 ug/g creatinine. /Mercury vapor/
    [Clayton, G.D., F.E. Clayton (eds.) Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Volumes 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, 2E, 2F: Toxicology. 4th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1993-1994.2133]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Mercury urinary concentrations of 87 control workers (mean urinary mercury in the range of 3.3 to 4.6 mg Hg/g creatinine, based upon three separate visits) were compared to those of 105 exposed workers (mean urinary mercury in the range of 63 to 71 ug Hg/g creatinine, based upon three separate visits). The range of individual values was 0.4 to 275 ug Hg/g creatinine. The corresponding mean blood mercury values were 5 and 17.5 ug Hg/l, respectively. Highly significant correlations were found between blood and urinary mercury concentrations. Urinary gamma-glutamyl transferase correlated with urinary mercury levels in the exposed group. The prevalence of greater than normal activities of the enzymes N-acetyl-glucosaminidase (NAG) and gamma-glutamyl transferase appeared to increase when the mercury concentration in urine exceeded 100 ug Hg/g creatinine; but there was no evidence of a dose response relationship over the full range of mercury concentration. /Mercury/
    [Clayton, G.D., F.E. Clayton (eds.) Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Volumes 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, 2E, 2F: Toxicology. 4th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1993-1994.2133]**PEER REVIEWED**

    When 84 mercury exposed workers in a thermometer factory were compared to 79 workers not exposed to mercury, the exposed workers were found to have a higher prevalence of static tremor, abnormal Romberg test, and dysdiadochokinesia. There was a correlation between urinary mercury Hg and NAG suggestive of recent mercury toxicity, whereas the CNS signs and symptoms were considered a result of chronic toxicity. No differences existed between the groups of workers with regard to beta-microglobulin and retinol-binding protein, which are considered markers of proximal renal tubule function. /Mercury/
    [Clayton, G.D., F.E. Clayton (eds.) Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Volumes 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, 2E, 2F: Toxicology. 4th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1993-1994.2133]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Forty one male mercury exposed workers were examined for serum concentration levels of immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, IgM), alpha-1-antitrypsin (AIAT), alpha-2-macroglobulin (A2M), ceruloplasmin (CPL), and orosomucoid (ORO). In the period preceding this investigation the mercury concentrations in workplace air ranged from 0.106 to 0.783 mg/cu m; the range of urinary mercury concentrations was from 0.029 to 0.545 mg/l. All but two (IgG and AIAT) of the immune parameters tested were at levels much higher than those found in a control group of 55 workers matched by age to the exposed workers and who lived in a relatively clean area. Almost 80% of the workers in the control group demonstrated no value out of the range of normal physiological limits, but only 36.6% of the exposed workers showed normal values. /Mercury/
    [Clayton, G.D., F.E. Clayton (eds.) Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Volumes 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, 2E, 2F: Toxicology. 4th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1993-1994.2136]**PEER REVIEWED**

    The most extensive episodes of mercury (Hg) poisoning have resulted from contamination of bread made from cereal grains treated with alkyl-mercury fungicides. These incidents have occurred in Iraq, Pakistan, Guatemala, and on a limited scale in other countries. The largest of these episodes occurred in Iraq, 1971-72. It involved some 6,000 hospital admissions and 500 deaths. The mean methyl mercury content of wheat was found to be 7.9 mg/kg (3.7-14.9 mg/kg). In the most severely affected group of the population, the highest daily intake of Hg was about 130 ug/kg; The average period of consumption ranged from 43-68 days. /Alkyl-mercury fungicides/
    [WHO; Environ Health Criteria: Mercury p.90-107 (1976)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    THE MOST CONSISTENT & PRONOUNCED EFFECTS OF /CHRONIC/ EXPOSURE TO ... SHORT-CHAIN ALKYLMERCURY COMPOUNDS SUCH AS METHYLMERCURY ARE ON CNS. EFFECTS ... ARE NEUROLOGICAL & PSYCHIATRIC. COMMON SYMPTOMS INCL DEPRESSION, IRRITABILITY, EXAGGERATED RESPONSE TO STIMULATION (ERETHISM), EXCESSIVE SHYNESS, INSOMNIA, EMOTIONAL INSTABILITY, FORGETFULNESS, CONFUSION, & VASOMOTOR DISTURBANCES SUCH AS EXCESSIVE PERSPIRATION & UNCONTROLLED BLUSHING. TREMORS ARE ALSO COMMON ... ... SENSORY EFFECTS ... OCCUR MORE CONSISTENTLY & AT LOWER LEVELS OF EXPOSURE. EARLIEST SIGN IS PARESTHESIA. AT ... HIGHER LEVELS OF EXPOSURE OTHER EFFECTS OCCUR, SUCH AS ATAXIA, CONSTRICTION OF VISUAL FIELD, DYSARTHRIA, & HEARING DEFECTS. THESE ALTERATIONS ARE IRREVERSIBLE WHEN POISONING IS SEVERE. NEUROPSYCHIATRIC EFFECTS ... ARE LIKELY TO INVOLVE SPONTANEOUS FITS OF LAUGHING & CRYING & INTELLECTUAL DETERIORATION. /ALKYLMERCURY COMPOUNDS/
    [Hardman, J.G., L.E. Limbird, P.B. Molinoff, R.W. Ruddon, A.G. Goodman (eds.). Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 9th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1996.1657]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Of 60 adult African women using skin-lightening creams containing inorganic mercury, 26 developed the nephrotic syndrome ... Reported one case of membranous nephropathy, due to the use of skin-lightening cream, where immunofluorescence showed finely granular IgG, IgM, and C3 complement deposits. /Inorganic mercury/
    [WHO; Environmental Health Criteria 118: Inorganic Mercury p. 93 (1991)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    ... Thiomersal (sodium ethylmercurithiosalicilate) and ammoniated mercury have been found to be common sensitizers in a survey on the epidemiology of contact dermatitis ... Both aryl- and alkylmercurial seed dressings have also been shown to be potent skin sensitizers. Mercury compounds give rise to a type IV cell-mediated delayed hypersensitivity reaction ... .
    [WHO; Environmental Health Criteria 118: Inorganic Mercury p. 97 (1991)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Acute poisoning is major threat in home & on farm, but, because mercury is a cumulative poison, subacute & chronic intoxications are recognized, particularly in industry.
    [Gosselin, R.E., R.P. Smith, H.C. Hodge. Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products. 5th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1984.III-266]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Human Toxicity Values:

    Lethal Blood Level: The concn of inorganic mercury present in the blood (serum or plasma) that has been reported to cause death in humans is: 0.04-2.2 mg%; 0.4-22 ug/ml. /Inorganic mercury/
    [Winek, C.L. Drug and Chemical Blood-Level Data 1985. Pittsburgh, PA: Allied Fischer Scientific, 1985.]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Skin, Eye and Respiratory Irritations:

    MANY MERCURY CMPD ARE IRRITATING TO SKIN & MAY PRODUCE DERMATITIS WITH OR WITHOUT VESICATION. ... CONTACT WITH EYES CAUSES ULCERATION OF CONJUNCTIVA & CORNEA.
    [Gosselin, R.E., R.P. Smith, H.C. Hodge. Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products. 5th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1984.III-263]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Alkyl mercury compounds are primary skin irritants and may cause dermatitis. /Methyl mercury compounds/
    [Sittig M; Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals p.421 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    THE ALKYLMERCURY COMPOUNDS ARE STRONG IRRITANTS OF THE SKIN & MAY CAUSE BLISTERS OR OTHER DERMATITIS WITH OR WITHOUT ASSOC SYSTEMIC ILLNESS. /ALKYLMERCURY COMPOUNDS/
    [Hayes, Wayland J., Jr. Pesticides Studied in Man. Baltimore/London: Williams and Wilkins, 1982.22]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Exposure of the skin to a concentrated solution of phenylmercury cmpd may cause chemical burns with blistering. /Aryl mercury cmpd/
    [International Labour Office. Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety. Vols. I&II. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Office, 1983.1336]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Soluble salts have violent corrosive effects on skin and mucous membranes. /Mercury/
    [Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996.1006]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Irritation levels: The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) states that "the organomercurials are severe skin, eye & mucous membrane irritants. /Organo (alkyl) mercury/
    [Mackison, F. W., R. S. Stricoff, and L. J. Partridge, Jr. (eds.). NIOSH/OSHA - Occupational Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards. DHHS(NIOSH) Publication No. 81-123 (3 VOLS). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, Jan. 1981.3]**PEER REVIEWED**

    PROLONGED ABSORPTION OF IODIDES MAY PRODUCE IODISM WHICH IS MANIFESTED BY SKIN RASH, RUNNING NOSE, HEADACHE, AND IRRITATION OF MUCOUS MEMBRANES. /IODIDES/
    [Sax, N.I. Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 6th ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1984.1616]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Medical Surveillance:

    The assessment of mercury exposure can be accomplished through measurement of mercury, which is useful for assessment of recent exposure to any of the three forms of mercury. ... Whole Blood Reference Ranges: Normal - mean level in the general population <8 ug/l; Exposed - BEI (sampling time at end of shift at end of workweek, measured as total inorganic mercury) 15.0 ug/l. BAT (biological tolerance value for a working material) for metallic and inorganic compounds (sampling time not fixed) 50 ug/l; BAT for organic compounds (sampling time not fixed) 100 ug/l. /Mercury/
    [Ryan, R.P., C.E. Terry (eds.). Toxicology Desk Reference 4th ed. Volumes 1-3. Taylor & Francis, washington, D.C. 1997.1577]**PEER REVIEWED**

    The assessment of mercury exposure can be accomplished through measurement of mercury, which is useful for assessment of recent exposure to any of the three forms of mercury. ... Whole Blood Reference Ranges: Toxic - 0.3 ug/100 ml, memory disturbances, impaired eye-hand coordination; 0.5-3 ug/100 ml, altered electroencephalograms (EEGs); <1 - >10 ug/deciliter, increased tremors; 1.4 ug/ ml, decreased immunoglogin G (IgG) and immunoglobin A (IgA) levels; >1.5 ug/100 ml, disturbances in tests on verbal intelligence and memory; 1-2 ug/100 ml, increased prevalence of abnormal psychomotor scores; 1-2 ug/ 100 ml, increased tremors, impaired eye-hand coordination; >3 ug/100 ml, (estimated threshold level): increased urinary excretion of beta-galactosidase and high molecular weight proteins. /Mercury/
    [Ryan, R.P., C.E. Terry (eds.). Toxicology Desk Reference 4th ed. Volumes 1-3. Taylor & Francis, washington, D.C. 1997.1577]**PEER REVIEWED**

    The assessment of mercury exposure can be accomplished through measurement of mercury. However, measurement of mercury in ... /serum or plasma/ is insensitive because mercury is found primarily in the red blood cells. Serum or Plasma Reference Ranges: Normal - not established; Exposed - not established; Toxic - not established. /Mercury/
    [Ryan, R.P., C.E. Terry (eds.). Toxicology Desk Reference 4th ed. Volumes 1-3. Taylor & Francis, washington, D.C. 1997.1578]**PEER REVIEWED**

    The assessment of mercury exposure can be accomplished through measurement of mercury ... Urine Reference Ranges: Normal - <20.0 ug/l; Exposed - BEI (sampling time is preshift, measured as total inorganic mercury) 35.0 ug/g creatinine; Toxic - 3-53 ug/g creatinine, memory disturbances, impaired eye-hand coordination; 4-53 ug/g creatinine, altered EEGs; 3-272 ug/g creatinine, increased anti-laminin antibodies (implicated in the etiology of autoimmune glomerulo-nephritis); 44 ug/g creatinine, decreased Iga and IgG levels; 73 ug/g creatinine, increased static tremors, difficulty with heel-to-toe gait; 50-100 ug/g creatinine, increased tremors, impaired eye-hand coordination; >50 ug/g creatinine (estimated threshold level), increased urinary excretion of beta-galactosidase and high molecular weight proteins; 7-1,101 ug/24 hr, abnormal memory tests, decreased tibial nerve velocity, increased median nerve latency in both motor and sensory nerves; 0-510 ug/l, short term memory loss; 5-1,000 ug/l, increased tremor frequency and reaction time, impaired eye-hand coordination; <10->1,000 ug/l, increased tremors; 20-450 ug/l, increased motor and sensory nerve latency; >56 ug/l, disturbances in tests on verbal intelligence and memory; 100-250 ug/l, increased acetyl beta-d-glucosaminidase (NAG) enzyme levels in urine; >200 ug/l, increased tremors, impaired eye-hand coordination; 300-1,400 ug/l, nephrotic syndrome, albuminuria, hypercholesterolemia; 56 ug/g creatinine, no effect level for proteinuria. /Mercury/
    [Ryan, R.P., C.E. Terry (eds.). Toxicology Desk Reference 4th ed. Volumes 1-3. Taylor & Francis, washington, D.C. 1997.1578]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Urine Albumin: Albuminuria has been shown to be a specific marker of glomerular dysfunction. Tubular damage, however, can also result in increased levels of albumin in the urine. /Metallic, inorganic and organic mercury/
    [Ryan, R.P., C.E. Terry (eds.). Toxicology Desk Reference 4th ed. Volumes 1-3. Taylor & Francis, washington, D.C. 1997.1580]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Urinary Beta-2-Microglobulin and/or Retinal Binding Protein: Measurements for the presence of either of these low molecular weight proteins are useful in detection of early impairment of proximal tubular function. However, beta-2-microglobulin is unstable at urinary pH less than 6, and may degrade in the bladder prior to collection and subsequent neutralization of the urine sample. Measurement of retinal binding protein appears to be a better marker for early tubular dysfunction due to its stability in the urine subsequent to collection and analysis. However, retinal binding protein is produced in the liver and not a constitutive protein of the kidney, so that its presence in the kidney provides only indirect evidence of tubular damage. /Metallic, inorganic and organic mercury/
    [Ryan, R.P., C.E. Terry (eds.). Toxicology Desk Reference 4th ed. Volumes 1-3. Taylor & Francis, washington, D.C. 1997.1580]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Urinary Alpha () and Pi () Isoenzymes of Glutathione S-Transferase: Radio-immunological and Elisa techniques have been developed for quantitation of and isoenzymes of glutathione S-transferase, which are constitutive proteins in the kidney." The isoenzyme is located only in the proximal tubule, while the isoenzyme is located in the distal convoluted tubule, the loop of Henle, and the collecting ducts of the kidney. Damage to epithelial cell membranes can result in the increased excretion of these isoenzymes in the urine. This test for assessing renal tubular damage appears to have many advantages over other available tests, such as: (1) the and isoenzymes are constitutive proteins in the kidney; (2) these isoenzymes are stable in the urine; (3) the test is simple and reproducible; and (4) due to selective localization of the isoenzymes, differential diagnosis of specific tubular damage is possible. In addition, increased levels of these isoenzymes were seen in patients previously exposed to nephrotoxicants where'conventional tests for kidney function were normal, indicating a high degree of sensitivity. /Metallic, inorganic and organic mercury/
    [Ryan, R.P., C.E. Terry (eds.). Toxicology Desk Reference 4th ed. Volumes 1-3. Taylor & Francis, washington, D.C. 1997.1581]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Urinary Enzyme N-Acetylglucosaminidase: This lysosomal enzyme has shown promise in assessment of subclinical nephrotoxic injury. This enzyme is not normally filtered at the glomerulus due to its high molecular weight. In the absence of glomerular injury, this enzyme will be detected in the urine as a result of leakage or exocytosis from damaged, stimulated, or exfoliated renal cells. The sensitivity of measurement for this enzyme has not been thoroughly studied, but it's usefulness has shown some promise. However, this enzyme is unstable at urinary pH greater than 8, which could diminish the sensitivity of the measurement due to enzyme degradation. /Metallic, inorganic and organic mercury/
    [Ryan, R.P., C.E. Terry (eds.). Toxicology Desk Reference 4th ed. Volumes 1-3. Taylor & Francis, washington, D.C. 1997.1581]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Routine Urinalysis: Performing a routine urinalysis including parameters such as specific gravity, glucose, and microscopic examination may be useful for assessing renal toxicity. /Metallic, inorganic and organic mercury/
    [Ryan, R.P., C.E. Terry (eds.). Toxicology Desk Reference 4th ed. Volumes 1-3. Taylor & Francis, washington, D.C. 1997.1581]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Evaluation of Peripheral Neuropathy: Nerve conduction study; Electromyography; Quantitative sensory testing; Thermography. /Metallic, inorganic and organic mercury/
    [Ryan, R.P., C.E. Terry (eds.). Toxicology Desk Reference 4th ed. Volumes 1-3. Taylor & Francis, washington, D.C. 1997.1584]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Evaluation of Central Nervous System Effects: Evaluation of CNS effects can be performed through neuropsychological assessment, which consists of a clinical interview and administration of standardized personality and neuropsychological tests. The areas that the neuropsychology test batteries focus on include the domains of memory and attention; visuoperceptual, visual scanning, visuospatial, and visual memory; and motor speed and reaction time. There is limited data on which components of the test batteries are best indicators of early CNS effects. /Metallic, inorganic and organic mercury/
    [Ryan, R.P., C.E. Terry (eds.). Toxicology Desk Reference 4th ed. Volumes 1-3. Taylor & Francis, washington, D.C. 1997.1584]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Evaluation of Cranial Neuropathies: Evaluation of cranial nerve damage, as evidenced by symptoms such as loss of balance, visual function, smell, taste, or sensation on the face, can be accomplished through a physical examination focusing on tests such as: Smell Assessment ... Visual Assessment ... Facial and Trigeminal Nerve Assessment ... Vestibular Assessment ... Hearing Assessment. /Metallic, inorganic and organic mercury/
    [Ryan, R.P., C.E. Terry (eds.). Toxicology Desk Reference 4th ed. Volumes 1-3. Taylor & Francis, washington, D.C. 1997.1584]**PEER REVIEWED**

    A complete history and physical examination should be performed to detect existing conditions that might place the exposed employee at increased risk and to establish a baseline for future health monitoring. This examination should detect any signs or symptoms of unacceptable mercury absorption such as weight loss, insomnia, tremors, personality changes, or other evidence of central nervous system involvement, as well as evidence of kidney damage. The skin should be examined for evidence of chronic disorders. Urinalysis should include at a minimum, specific gravity, albumin, glucose, and a microscopic examination of centrifuged sediment. Determination of mercury level in the urine may be helpful in assessing extent of absorption. /Mercury/
    [NIOSH/OSHA; Occupational Health Guide for Chemical Hazards: Inorganic Mercury (1981) DHHS Pub. NIOSH 81-123]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Routine medical surveillance: periodic medical exams including analysis of blood and urine for amount of mercury present for all workers directly involved in production of mercurials, or otherwise exposed to contact with mercury cmpd or mercury vapor. /Mercury cmpd/
    [Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 3rd ed., Volumes 1-26. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, 1978-1984.15(81) 167]**PEER REVIEWED**

    /SRP: Protect/ from exposure those individuals with diseases of liver, kidneys, lung, and nerves. /Mercury cmpd/
    [ITII. Toxic and Hazarous Industrial Chemicals Safety Manual. Tokyo, Japan: The International Technical Information Institute, 1982.315]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Preemployment and periodic examinations should be concerned especially with the skin, respiratory tract, central nervous system and kidneys. The urine should be examined and urinary mercury levels determined periodically. Signs of weight loss, gingivitis, tremors, personality changes and insomnia should be suggestions of possible mercury intoxication. /Mercury cmpd/
    [Sittig, M. Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, 1985. 2nd ed. Park Ridge, NJ: Noyes Data Corporation, 1985.571]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Medical Surveillance: Placement and periodic physical examinations should be concerned particularly with the skin, vision, central nervous system, and kidneys. Consideration should be given to the possible effects on the fetus of alkyl mercury exposure in the mother. Constriction of visual fields may be a useful diagnostic sign. Blood and urine levels of mercury have been studied, especially in the case of methyl mercury. A precise correlation has not been found between exposure levels and concentrations. They may be of some value in indicating that exposure has occurred. /Aryl and alkyl mercury cmpd/
    [Sittig M; Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals p.421 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Recommended medical surveillance: The following medical procedures should be made available to each employee who is exposed to organo (alkyl) mercury at potentially hazardous levels: 1) Initial medical examination: A complete history & physical examination: The purpose is to detect pre-existing conditions that might place the exposed employee at increased risk, & to establish a baseline for future health monitoring. Examination of the CNS, the kidneys, & eyes should be stressed. The skin should be examined for evidence of chronic disorders. Blood test: Analysis of the blood for mercury may be useful in monitoring absorption. Urinalysis: Since kidney damage has been observed in humans exposed to organo mercury, a urinalysis should be obtained to include at a minimum specific gravity, albumin, glucose & a microscopic /examination/ of centrifuged sediment. 2) Periodic medical examination: The aforementioned medical examination should be repeated on an annual basis. /Organo (alkyl) mercury/
    [Mackison, F. W., R. S. Stricoff, and L. J. Partridge, Jr. (eds.). NIOSH/OSHA - Occupational Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards. DHHS(NIOSH) Publication No. 81-123 (3 VOLS). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, Jan. 1981.2]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Indicators of exposure & concentrations in the critical organ: Experimental studies in man & primates have shown that mercury concn in blood is, under steady-state conditions, linearly correlated to intake of methylmercury & to the concn of methylmercury in the critical organ (the brain), at non-toxic body burdens. As more than 90% of methylmercury in blood is to be found in the erythrocytes, the mercury concn in red cells is the most reliable index of methylmercury body burden & brain concn. Methylmercury is deposited in the hair during the formation of pile. The deposition of the methylmercury in the pile is proportional to the mercury concn in blood at the time of pile formation. Thus, the mercury concn in the hair pile constitutes a calendar of mercury concn in blood, which occurred during formation of the pile. The methylmercury concn in the hair can be used as an indicator of mercury concn in blood, & in the critical organ, or body burden of mercury, provided that allowance is made for the growth rate of the hair pile (about 1 cm a month, dependent upon age) & for the time lag between hair formation & extrusion. ... the quotent between methylmercury concn in blood & hair is 1 to 250. Under occupational conditions the possibility of external contamination of hair should be kept in mind. /Methylmercury compounds/
    [Friberg, L., Nordberg, G.F., Kessler, E. and Vouk, V.B. (eds). Handbook of the Toxicology of Metals. 2nd ed. Vols I, II.: Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., 1986.V2 428]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Organic mercury exposure is best monitored by the measurement of total mercury (or the specific derivative) in whole blood. It has been recommended that the blood mercury level not be allowed to exceed 0.10 mg/l in workers exposed to organomercury compounds. /Organomercury compounds/
    [Baselt, R.C. Biological Monitoring Methods for Industrial Chemicals. 2nd ed. Littleton, MA: PSG Publishing Co., Inc. 1988.200]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Populations at Special Risk:

    Females of child bearing age should not be occupationally exposed to methyl mercury cmpd. Prenatal life may be the stage of the life-cycle most sensitive to methyl mercury cmpd. /Methyl mercury cmpd/
    [WHO; Environ Health Criteria: Mercury p.119 (1976)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Children are more susceptible than adults to mercury poisoning. /Mercury salts/
    [Britt DL, Hushon JM; Biological Effects, Criteria and Standards for Hazardous Pollutants Associated with Energy Technologies p.6-38 (1976)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Persons with a history of allergies or known sensitization to mercury, chronic respiratory disease, nervous system disorders, or kidney disorders are at increased risk from exposure.
    [NIOSH/OSHA; Occupational Health Guide for Chemical Hazards: Inorganic Mercury p.1 (1981) DHHS Pub. NIOSH 81-123]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Probable Routes of Human Exposure:

    INHALATION OF VAPOR BY LABORATORY WORKERS IN CLOSED SPACE LED TO BRONCHIAL IRRITATION /AND CHARACTERISTIC MERCURY POISONING SYMPTOMS/ ... CHRONIC MERCURIALISM IN FUR-CUTTING AND FELT-HAT INDUSTRIES /IS REPORTED/. ALTHOUGH MERCURIC NITRATE WAS MATERIAL USED TO TREAT FUR FROM WHICH FELT WAS MADE, MERCURY WAS GRADUALLY RELEASED FROM FUR AND FELT IN FORM OF METALLIC MERCURY VAPOR. ... THE WORKERS HAD MIXED EXPOSURE TO DUST OF MERCURY CMPD (ESP THE NITRATE) AND TO VAPOR OF ELEMENT. ... POISONING WAS SIMILAR TO THAT OBSERVED ... /WITH/ METALLIC MERCURY ONLY.
    [Hayes, Wayland J., Jr. Pesticides Studied in Man. Baltimore/London: Williams and Wilkins, 1982.12]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Acute poisoning usually results from oral ingestion of highly dissociated inorganic prepn, but it may also be caused by ... mercurial ointments applied topically. /MERCURY/
    [Gilman, A.G., L.S.Goodman, and A. Gilman. (eds.). Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 7th ed. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., 1985.1611]**PEER REVIEWED**

    The dominant food source of mercury in the human diet is fish and fish products. ... In terms of total Hg, the diet greatly exceeds other media, including air and water, as a source of human exposure and absorption of Hg. /Mercury/
    [USEPA; Mercury Health Effects Update p.2-4 (1984) EPA 600/8-84-019F]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Accumulation of mercury in the terrestrial and aquatic food chains results in risks for man mainly through the consumption of: fish from contaminated waters; especially predator species, tuna fish, swordfish and other large oceanic fish even if caught considerably off shore; other seafoods including muscles and crayfish, fish-eating birds and mammals; and eggs of fish eating birds. /Mercury cmpds/
    [WHO; Environ Health Criteria: Mercury p.55 (1976)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    The EPA has reported that dietary intake is the most important source of exposure to mercury compounds for the general public(1). Individuals currently living in proximity to former mercury production facilities, chloroalkali facilities, municipal and medical waste incinerators, other mercury-disposal or recycling facilities, or any hazardous waste sites where mercury compounds have been detected are at risk of receiving potentially higher-than-normal background exposure(2). Occupational exposure to inorganic mercury compounds have been investigated in chloralkali plants, mercury mines, and refineries. High mercury levels in blood and urine have been reported for all these occupational exposure situations, although levels vary according to work environment conditions(3). The number of workers exposed to different mercury compounds have been reported. For example, the estimated total number of workers (number of women workers in parenthesis) exposed in 1983 to mercury chloride and mercuric sulfide was 45,492 (18,717) and 98 (0), respectively(2).
    [(1) WHO; Methyl Mercury - Environmental Health Criteria 101. Geneva. NY, NY: World Health Organization. WHO Publications Center pp. 144 (1990) (2) ATSDR; Toxicological Profile for Mercury p. 312 (1998) Research Triangle Institute 205-93-0606 (1998) (3) WHO; Inorganic Mercury - Environmental Health Criteria 118. Geneva. NY, NY: World Health Organization. WHO Publications Center pp. 168 (1991)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Average Daily Intake:

    The intake of total dietary mercury (Hg) has been measured ... over a number of years for various age groups. The average daily intake over the period 1973 to 1982 has been in the range of 2000 to 7000 ng Hg for adults and up to 1000 ng Hg for toddlers and infants. The most recent figures (fiscal year 1981-82) were 3000 ng Hg for adults, 1000 ng Hg for toddlers, and less than 1000 ng Hg for infants. /Total mercury/
    [Gartrell M; US Environmental Protection Agency Profile No ECAO-HA-83-3 as cited in USEPA; Mercury Health Effects Update p.3-20 (1984) EPA 600/8-84-019F]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Assuming an ambient air level of 50 ng/cu m, the average daily intake of metallic mercury vapor would amount to 1 ug/day due to inhalation. ... The average daily intake of those sub-groups of the general population living in specially polluted areas is difficult to estimate with any accuracy. ... Daily intake from occupational exposure is almost impossible to estimate because of the wide variation in exposure conditions in industry. /Total mercury/
    [WHO; Environ Health Criteria: Mercury p.64 (1976)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    The estimated daily intakes of inorganic mercury compounds and methylmercury for the general population are 4.3 ug/day and 2.41 ug/day, respectively(1). Mercury intake from drinking-water was estimated to be approximately 50 ng/day and the mercury ingested is in the inorganic form (ie. mercuric chloride)(1). It is estimated that average daily intake of inorganic mercury compounds by the general population through ambient air, through the consumption of fish, non-fish food, and drinking water is 0.002 ug/day, 0.600 ug/day, 3.6 ug/day and 0.050 ug/day, respectively(2).
    [(1) WHO; Methyl Mercury - Environmental Health Criteria 101. Geneva. NY, NY: World Health Organization. WHO Publications Center pp. 144 (1990) (2) ATSDR; Toxicological Profile for Mercury p. 343. Research Triangle Institute 205-93-0606 (1998)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    ATMOSPHERIC INTAKE: 0.14 ug/day total mercury (elemental and methyl mercury) (assuming an avg ambient concn 7 ng/cu m)(1). FOOD INTAKE: 16.3 ug/day total mercury (assuming avg mercury concn in fish, 0.4 ug/g and an avg concn in other foods, 0.004 ug/g(1)).
    [(1) Bennett BG; IARC 71: 115-28 (1986)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Emergency Medical Treatment:

    Antidote and Emergency Treatment:

    If this chemical gets into the eyes, irrigate immediately. If this chemical contacts the skin, wash with soap immediately. If a person breathes in large amounts of this chemical, move the exposed person to fresh air at once and perform artificial respiration. When this chemical has been swallowed, get medical attention. Give large quantities of water and induce vomiting. Do not make an unconscious person vomit. /Methyl mercury compounds/
    [Sittig M; Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals p.421 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    In acute ingestions of inorganic salts, decontamination of the gastrointestinal tract to prevent further absorption and corrosion should be accomplished as rapidly as possible. The patient's condition dictates whether syrup of ipecac or lavage should be used to empty the stomach. A protein solution to bind the mercury, such as egg whites, or 5 percent salt-poor albumin or 5 percent sodium formaldehyde sulfoxylate to reduce mercuric ion to the less soluble mercurous ion may be used as lavage fluid. This should be followed by a saliine cathartic (unless diarrhea has already ensued) and 20 to 50 grams of activated charcoal. Start BAL (British antilewisite) administration, ... . Monitor eletrolytes, fluid balance, and renal function carefully. Obtain blood and urine mercury levels, collecting all urine in appropriate containers in timed aliquots. When potentially toxic doses have been taken, peritoneal dialysis (with 5% salt-poor albumin added) or hemodialysis established early in the course concurrent with BAL administration may remove 10 to 15% of the ingested mercury and, even more importantly, relieve the kidneys and treat any uremia caused by the reversible kidney damage. It has been the practice to wait until the almost inevitable (since the kidney is the primary site of deposition) anuria occurs to start dialysis. Limited experience suggests an advantage of instituting dialysis within the first 24 hours before maximal renal mercury concentrations can occur on the second day. This also may assist in controlling fluid and electrolyte imbalance as circulatory collapse accentuates the toxic tubular lesions. Dialysis may have to be continued over several days. If blood and urine mercury levels are still elevated following the course of BAL and return of renal function, a course of the oral chelating agent N-acetyl-D,L-penicillamine or, if this is not available, penicillamine, 35 to 100 mg/kg/24 hr (not to exceed 1 g/24 hr) divided into four doses a day, may be given on an empty stomach. Urine mercury levels should be monitored to determine when to stop chelation. /Inorganic mercury salts/
    [Haddad, L.M., Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders Co., 1990.1006]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Animal Toxicity Studies:

    Toxicity Summary:

    IDENTIFICATION: In its elemental form, mercury is a heavy silvery liquid at room temperature and has a very high vapour pressure. Mercury vapor is more soluble in plasma, whole blood, and hemoglobin than in distilled water, where it dissolves only slightly. The major natural sources of mercury are degassing of the earth's crust, emissions from volcanoes, and evaporation from natural bodies of water. (The world-wide mining of mercury is estimated to yield about 10,000 tons per year. The activities lead to some losses of mercury and direct discharges to the atmosphere). Other important sources are fossil fuel combustion, metal sulfide ore smelting, gold refining, cement production, refuse incineration, and industrial applications of metals. A major use of mercury is as a cathode in the electrolysis of sodium chloride. Mercury is used in the electrical industry, in control instruments in the home and industry, and in laboratory and medical instruments. A very large amount of mercury is used for the extraction of gold. Dental silver amalgam for tooth filling contains large amounts of mercury. Use of skin-lightening soap and creams can give rise to substantial mercury exposure. Occupational exposure to inorganic mercury has been investigated in chloralkali plants, mercury mines, thermometer factories, refineries, and in dental clinics. High mercury levels have been reported for all these occupational exposure situations, although levels vary according to work environment conditions. HUMAN EXPOSURE: The general population is primarily exposed to mercury through the diet and dental amalgam. Acute inhalation exposure to mercury vapor may be followed by chest pains, dyspnea, coughing, hemoptysis, and sometimes interstitial pneumonitis leading to death. (The ingestion of mercuric compounds, in particular mercuric chloride, has caused ulcerative gastroenteritis and acute tubular necrosis causing death from anuria where dialysis was not available). The central nervous system is the critical organ for mercury vapor exposure. Subacute exposure has given rise to psychotic reactions characterized by delerium, hallucinations, and suicidal tendency. Occupational exposure has resulted in erethism as the principal feature of a broad ranging functional disturbance. The kidney is the critical organ following the ingestion of inorganic divalent mercury salts. Occupational exposure to metallic mercury has long been associated with the development of proteinuria. Both metallic mercury vapor and mercury compounds have given rise to contact dermatitis. Mercurial pharmaceuticals have been responsible for Pink disease (acrodynia) in children, and mercury vapor exposure may be a cause of "Kawasaki" disease. Results of both human and animal studies indicate that about 80% of inhaled metallic mercury vapour is retained by the body, whereas liquid metallic mercury is poorly absorbed via the gastrointestinal tract. ANIMAL STUDIES: Evidence of damage to brain, kidney, heart, and lungs have been reported in rabbits exposed acutely to metallic mercury vapor at certain concentrations. Both reversible and irreversible toxic effects may be caused by mercury and its compounds. In two studies, tremor and behavioural effects were observed in rabbits and rats after several weeks of exposure to metallic mercury vapour. Depending upon the animal strain tested, either auto-immunity or immunosuppression is observed. The most sensitive adverse effect caused by mercuric mercury is the formation of mercuric-mercury-induced auto-immune glomerulonephritis. Mercuric chloride was found to induce gene mutations in mouse lymphoma cells and DNA damage in rat and mouse fibroblasts. The World Health Organization reported no evidence that inorganic mercury is carcinogenic. The neurotoxic effect seen after exposure to metallic mercury vapour is attributable to the divalent mercury ion formed through oxidation in the brain tissue. Significantly more mercury is transported to the brain of mice and monkeys after the inhalation of elemental mercury than after the intravenous injection of equivalent doses of the mercuric form.
    [World Health Organization/International Programme on Chemical Safety. Environmental Health Criteria 118 Inorganic Mercury. pp. 13-21, 68-83 (1991)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Evidence for Carcinogenicity:

    Evaluation: There is inadequate evidence in humans for the carcinogenicity of mercury and mercury compounds. There is inadequate evidence in experimental animals for the carcinogenicity of metallic mercury. There is limited evidence in experimental animals for the carcinogenicity of mercuric chloride. There is sufficient evidence in experimental animals for the carcinogenicity of methylmercury chloride. In making the overall evaluation, the Working Group took into account evidence that methylmercury compounds are similar with regard to absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, genotoxicity and other forms of toxicity. Overall evaluation: Methylmercury compounds are possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B). Metallic mercury and inorganic mercury compounds are not classifiable as to their carcinogenicity to humans. (Group 3). /Mercury and mercury compounds/
    [IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work).V58 324 (1993)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Non-Human Toxicity Excerpts:

    Mercuric salts in vitro enhanced the viral transformations of hamster cells and reduced the molecular weight of DNA in Chinese hamster ovary cells, but did not produce mutagenesis in non-mammalian cells. /Mercuric salts/
    [USEPA; Mercury Health Effects Update p.5-14 (1984) EPA 600/8-84-019F]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Some of the observations made from the mercury toxicity study were that Hg(2+) cmpd are more toxic than the Hg(1+) cmpds via all the administration routes (except Hg(NO3)2 via ip route); No species resistance to oral LD was observed; The order of toxicity via ip administration practically showed the same toxicity as observed oral administration; Toxicity of Hg(2+) cmpd were less uniform than Hg(1+) cmpd; And solubility of the cmpd had no effect on the toxicity. As an example, water-soluble HgNO3 was 7-fold less toxic than Hg(NO3)2, while on the other hand being less toxic than the insoluble HgCl.
    [Trakhtenberg IM et al; Gig Tr Prof Zabol 7: 27-30 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    The toxic effects of various Hg cmpd (eg, mercurous chloride, mercuric chloride, mercuric acetate, and phenylmercury acetate) on percentage germination, pigment concn, root-shoot lengths, and fresh wt & dry wt of 7-day-old seedlings of barley were investigated. Phenylmercury acetate was the most toxic, followed by mercuric acetate, while mercurous chloride was the least toxic.
    [Mukhiya YK et al; Int J Environ Stud 20 (3-4): 323-327 (1983)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Studies were carried out on male Wistar rats, where the activity of acetylcholinesterase was determined in red blood cells and bone marrow after exposure to organic and inorganic mercury cmpd. A marked decline in the activity of the enzyme was noted, along with a more pronounced effect of the organic mercury cmpd.
    [Miszta H; Folia Haematol 111 (5): 632-637 (1984)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    THE INSECTICIDAL ACTION OF MERCURY SALTS WAS RELATED TO THEIR DECOMPOSITION BY SOIL ORGANISMS AND RELEASE OF MERCURY VAPORS. THIS REACTION REQUIRED MOISTURE AND PROCEEDED MORE RAPIDLY AS SOIL PH AND TEMPERATURE WAS INCREASED. /MERCURY SALTS/
    [Menzie, C.M. Metabolism of Pesticides. U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, Publication 127. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1969.240]**PEER REVIEWED**

    DISCOLORATION OF CORNEA ... PRODUCED EXPTL IN ANIMALS BY REPEATED SYSTEMIC ADMIN OF MERCURY. ... IT CONSISTS OF GRAYISH RING IN CORNEA JUST ANTERIOR TO ENDOTHELIUM EXTENDING APPROX 2 MM FROM LIMBUS. /INORG MERCURY/
    [Grant, W.M. Toxicology of the Eye. 3rd ed. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publisher, 1986.583]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Repeated oral admin of monovalent & divalent mercury compounds to rats 5 times/wk produced similar changes in affected organs. Most of the compounds primarily caused dystrophic changes of different degree in kidney, liver & myocardium. In remaining organs the changes were insignificant. Monovalent compounds were more toxic than divalent compounds. /An exception being/ mercuric chloride was more toxic than mercurous chloride. Varying degrees of lesions & selective toxic effects are due to the anions.
    [Samoilov AP et al; Vrach Delo (9): 107-9 (1983)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Among water-sol mercury compounds, mercurous nitrate had the least toxicity in rats & mice by way of stomach & caused severe diarrhea. Pathomorphological changes caused by mercuric chloride, mercuric acetate, & mercurous nitrate were similar, but mercuric chloride was most toxic in stomach, liver, & kidney as most sensitive organs. /Soluble mercury cmpd/
    [Grins N et al; Gig Sanit (8): 12-4 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    ... Long term exposure to inorganic mercury (II) indicates that concn above 0.23 ug/l caused significant effects on the fathead minnow and caused the concn of total mercury in the whole body to exceed 1.0 mg/kg. /Mercuric salts/
    [USEPA; Ambient Water Quality Criteria Doc: Mercury p.22 (1984) EPA 440/5-84-026]**PEER REVIEWED**

    ... Exposure of mice to organic Hg increased susceptibility to infection by Salmonella enteritidis. /Organic Hg/
    [Miller R et al; Am Zool 16: 261 (1976) as cited in Nat'l Research Council Canada; Effects of Mercury in the Canadian Environment p.117 (1979) NRCC No. 16739]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Organomercurial compounds in solution culture produced c-mitoses in the cells of growing root tips: 0.015 ppm Hg as methyl mercury dicyandiamide produced 98 and 63% c-mitoses in root tips of Tradescantia fluminensis and Vicia faba, respectively, while 0.01 ppm of the same compound was the maximum amount not causing c-mitoses in the roots of Allium cepa. /Organomercurial compounds/
    [Nat'l Research Council Canada; Effects of Mercury in the Canadian Environment p.104 (1979) NRCC No. 16739]**PEER REVIEWED**

    ... Aquatic plants appear more sensitive to the effects of organic Hg: photosynthesis and growth of marine diatoms and freshwater phytoplankton were inhibited in the presence of 0.1 ppb organic Hg. /Organic Hg/
    [Harriss RC et al; Science 170: 736-737 (1970) as cited in Nat'l Research Council Canada; Effects of Mercury in the Canadian Environment p.104 (1979) NRCC No. 16739]**PEER REVIEWED**

    CONCENTRATED SOLN /OF PHENYLMERCURIC SALTS/ ARE IRRITATING TO SKIN & INJURIOUS TO CORNEA /OF RABBITS/ . SEVERE REACTION IS INDUCED BY 0.1 MOLAR PHENYLMERCURIC CHLORIDE. /PHENYLMERCURIC SALTS/
    [Grant, W.M. Toxicology of the Eye. 3rd ed. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publisher, 1986.728]**PEER REVIEWED**

    EXPTL EVIDENCE FROM ANIMAL STUDIES /ON PATHOGENETIC MECHANISM OF ANURIA & POLYURIA/ SUGGESTS THAT SEVERAL FACTORS ARE INVOLVED. THESE ARE TUBULAR OBSTRUCTION, INCR BACK DIFFUSION OF TUBULAR FILTRATE, & PREGLOMERULAR VASOCONSTRICTION. /MERCURIC SALTS/
    [Doull, J., C.D. Klaassen, and M. D. Amdur (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. 2nd ed. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., 1980.426]**PEER REVIEWED**

    The mercurial seed dressings have been responsible for numerous outbreaks of poisoning ... /because/ grain treated with them ... /have/ been mistakenly used as food ... More frequently ... the outbreaks have been on a smaller scale, & occasioned by the feeding of a sack or sacks of treated grain to farm stock, commonly pigs. There is normally a lapse of several weeks between the beginning of the feeding of the grain & the sudden onset of clinical signs, but death is usually rapid once these, which may include anorexia, ataxia, diarrhea, petechial hemorrhage, blindness & nervous signs, have set in. /Organic mercury compounds/
    [Clarke, M. L., D. G. Harvey and D. J. Humphreys. Veterinary Toxicology. 2nd ed. London: Bailliere Tindall, 1981.62]**PEER REVIEWED**

    ... studies with mice & rats revealed organo mercurials to produce gastro-, pancreo-, hepato-, cardio-, & gonadotoxic effects. The immunocompetent system of the animals was involved in the pathological process as well as the endocrine system & the CNS. /Mercury, alkyl compounds/
    [American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I, II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991.893]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Effects on reproduction: There is no doubt about the injury of the fetus produced by alkyl mercury. However, the basis for it is unclear. For example, it has been reported that young rats cleared methyl mercury more readily than their dams, or that the infant rate was less than 1% of the adult rate. /Alkyl mercury compounds/
    [Hayes, Wayland J., Jr. Pesticides Studied in Man. Baltimore/London: Williams and Wilkins, 1982.21]**PEER REVIEWED**

    In subacute & chronic poisonings & probably sometimes in the late stages of acute poisonings, these organomercurials /aryl & alkoxyalkyl mercury/ appear to produce intoxication syndromes that are in practice indistinguishable from those induced by inorganic mercury. For example, renal damage has been reported in rats & mice given repeated parenteral doses of phenylmercuric salts & of alkoxyalkyl mercurials. /Aryl and alkoxyalkyl mercury/
    [Gosselin, R.E., R.P. Smith, H.C. Hodge. Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products. 5th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1984.III-266]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Four daily doses of wheat dressed with methoxyethylmercury silicate at a level of 20 mg Hg/kg were lethal for sheep. /Methoxyethylmercury silicate/
    [Clarke, M. L., D. G. Harvey and D. J. Humphreys. Veterinary Toxicology. 2nd ed. London: Bailliere Tindall, 1981.62]**PEER REVIEWED**

    During the period of MeHg use in Sweden, fish also were found to be contaminated with Hg: >0.2 ppm Hg was from the majority of Swedish fresh and coastal waters ... . In part, this appears to have resulted from the use of phenylmercury acetate (PMA) as a slimicide by pulp mills. Warning against the use of PMA had been issued in Sweden in 1947 ... . /Mercury/
    [Chang, L.W. (ed.). Toxicology of Metals. Boca Raton, FL: Lewis Publishers, 19961049]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Non-Human Toxicity Values:

    LD50 Mouse ip 8 mg/kg /PhHg/
    [Chang, L.W. (ed.). Toxicology of Metals. Boca Raton, FL: Lewis Publishers, 19961057]**PEER REVIEWED**

    LD50 Mouse ip 5 mg/kg /Hg2+/
    [Chang, L.W. (ed.). Toxicology of Metals. Boca Raton, FL: Lewis Publishers, 19961057]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Metabolism/Pharmacokinetics:

    Metabolism/Metabolites:

    Mercurous mercury is rather unstable in presence of biological molecules. In presence of sulfhydryl groups it undergoes disproportionation to one atom of metallic mercury & to one ion of mercuric mercury. /MERCUROUS SALTS/
    [Friberg, L., Nordberg, G.F., Kessler, E. and Vouk, V.B. (eds). Handbook of the Toxicology of Metals. 2nd ed. Vols I, II.: Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., 1986.390]**PEER REVIEWED**

    FROM A CELL-FREE EXTRACT OF MERCURY-RESISTANT PSEUDOMONAS, AN ENZYME WAS OBTAINED WHICH CATALYZED REDUCTION OF MERCURY IN ... INORG MERCURIALS TO METALLIC MERCURY. A PROSTHETIC GROUP OF THE ENZYME WAS IDENTIFIED AS FAD (FLAVINE ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE). /INORGANIC MERCURIALS/
    [Menzie, C. M. Metabolism of Pesticides, An Update. U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish, Wild-life Service, Special Scientific Report - Wildlife No. 184, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, l974.239]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Mercuric ion, Hg(2+) can be methylated by both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. /Mercuric ion/
    [Nat'l Research Council Canada; Effects of Mercury in the Canadian Environment p.33 (1976) NRCC No. 16739]**PEER REVIEWED**

    ALL ORGANO-MERCURIALS TESTED APPARENTLY RELEASE INORGANIC MERCURY IN ANIMAL TISSUES; BUT THE DIFFERENT MERCURIALS RELEASE DIVALENT MERCURY AT WIDELY VARYING RATES AFTER ADMINISTRATION TO ANIMALS. /ORGANO-MERCURIALS/
    [Menzie, C. M. Metabolism of Pesticides, An Update. U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish, Wild-life Service, Special Scientific Report - Wildlife No. 184, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, l974.242]**PEER REVIEWED**

    DISPOSITION OF PHENYL MERCURY IS ESSENTIALLY SAME AS FOR INORGANIC MERCURY. ... CARBON-MERCURY BOND IS RAPIDLY CLEAVED IN VIVO, YIELDING BENZENE & HG2+. BENZENE IS SUBSEQUENTLY OXIDIZED TO PHENOL, CONJUGATED & EXCRETED. /PHENYL MERCURY/
    [Doull, J., C.D. Klaassen, and M. D. Amdur (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. 2nd ed. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., 1980.423]**PEER REVIEWED**

    The organic mercury compounds can be divided into mercurials which are relatively stable, & those which rapidly split in the mammalian body. The pharmaceutically used short-chain alkylmercury compounds & diuretic mercurials, which are mainly excreted conjugated or unchanged by the kidneys, belong to the former group. /Organic mercury compounds/
    [Friberg, L., Nordberg, G.F., Kessler, E. and Vouk, V.B. (eds). Handbook of the Toxicology of Metals. 2nd ed. Vols I, II.: Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., 1986.V2 389]**PEER REVIEWED**

    It is generally assumed that differences in the distribution & storage of organic mercury pesticides are due, at least in part, to differences in solubility & perhaps to steric factors. Another factor is the greater stability of alkyl compounds ... Methyl mercury ... is metabolized to inorganic mercury, but the rate is much slower than for phenyl or methoxyalkyl compounds. /Organic mercury compounds/
    [Hayes, Wayland J., Jr. Pesticides Studied in Man. Baltimore/London: Williams and Wilkins, 1982.15]**PEER REVIEWED**

    The carbon-to-mercury bond is rather unstable in vivo. Within 24 hr after dosing test animals, all of the mercury was the inorganic mercuric ion. /Methoxyethylmercuric chloride/
    [Gosselin, R.E., R.P. Smith, H.C. Hodge. Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products. 5th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1984.II-137]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Absorption, Distribution & Excretion:

    In the case of inorganic divalent mercury, approx 15% of an oral, non-toxic dose is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract in adults and retained in body tissues. /Inorganic Hg/
    [USEPA; Mercury Health Effects Update p.4-32 (1984) EPA-600/8-84-019F]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Therapeutic or Normal Blood Level: The concn of organic mercury in blood (its serum or plasma) following therapeutically effective dosage in humans is 0.0-0.008 mg%; 0.0-0.080 ug/ml. /Organic mercury/
    [Winek, C.L. Drug and Chemical Blood-Level Data 1985. Pittsburgh, PA: Allied Fischer Scientific, 1985.]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Increasing the Hg level in soil by addition of ... inorganic mercurials can lead to modest increases in the Hg content of plants. For example ... addition of ... mercuric chloride ... to Canadian prairie soil increased the Hg content of alfalfa 3-10 times over control level of 0.07 ppm (dry weight basis). /Inorganic mercurials/
    [Nat'l Research Council Canada; Effects of Mercury in the Canadian Environment p.104 (1979) NRCC No. 16739]**PEER REVIEWED**

    MERCURY MOVES READILY ACROSS THE PLACENTA INTO FETAL TISSUE. REGARDLESS OF THE CHEMICAL FORM ADMIN, FETAL TISSUES ATTAIN CONCN OF MERCURY AT LEAST EQUAL TO THOSE OF THE MOTHER. /INORGANIC MERCURY SALTS/
    [Doull, J., C.D.Klassen, and M.D. Amdur (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. 3rd ed., New York: Macmillan Co., Inc., 1986.606]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Inorganic mercury has a markedly nonuniform distribution after absorption. The highest concentration of mercury is found in the kidneys, where the metal is retained longer than in other tissues. Concn of inorganic mercury are similar in whole blood and plasma. Inorganic mercurials do not readily pass the blood-brain barrier or the placenta. The metal is excreted in the urine and feces. /Inorganic mercury cmpd/
    [Hardman, J.G., L.E. Limbird, P.B. Molinoff, R.W. Ruddon, A.G. Goodman (eds.). Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 9th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1996.1656]**PEER REVIEWED**

    The studies were carried out on male Wistar rats, where the activity of acetylcholinesterase was determined in red cells and bone marrow under the influence of organic and inorganic mercury cmpd. A marked depression in the activity of the enzyme was noted, with a more pronounced effect of the organic mercury cmpd.
    [Miszta H; Folia Haematol 111 (5): 632-637 (1984)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    CHEM ANALYSES SHOWING ACCUMULATION OF MERCURY IN LENS /OF EYE/ IN MERCURIALENTIS HAVE BEEN REPORTED ... /MERCURY SALTS/
    [Grant, W.M. Toxicology of the Eye. 3rd ed. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publisher, 1986.583]**PEER REVIEWED**

    IN VIEW OF ANIMAL DATA, OTHER ORGANS OR CELLS /BESIDES KIDNEY/ WHERE MERCURY IS LIKELY TO ACCUMULATE ARE LIVER, MUCOUS MEMBRANE OF INTESTINAL TRACT, & EPITHELIUM OF SKIN, SPLEEN, INTERSTITIAL CELLS OF TESTICLES, & SOME PARTS OF BRAIN. IN ANIMAL EXPT, PLACENTA & FETAL MEMBRANE ... ACCUMULATE & RETAIN MERCURY.
    [Friberg, L., G.R. Nordberg, and V.B. Vouk. Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals. New York: Elsevier North Holland, 1979.517]**PEER REVIEWED**

    ... MERCURIC MERCURY IS EXCRETED BY ... SWEAT GLANDS, LACRIMAL GLANDS, MAMMARY GLANDS, & SALIVARY GLANDS. MAJOR PART ... IS EXCRETED IN URINE & FECES. PARTITION BETWEEN THESE TWO ROUTES IS DOSE-DEPENDENT & DATA INDICATE A LARGER FRACTION EXCRETED BY URINE UPON ADMIN OF LARGER DOSES.
    [Friberg, L., G.R. Nordberg, and V.B. Vouk. Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals. New York: Elsevier North Holland, 1979.517]**PEER REVIEWED**

    IF HG2+ SALTS REMAIN IN THE DIGESTIVE TRACT LONG ENOUGH OR IF SUBJECT IS EXPOSED TO HG2+ SALTS FOR A LONG TIME ... THE SKIN READILY ABSORBS MERCURY SALTS ... INORG MERCURY HAS ... AFFINITY TOWARD THIOL GROUPS OF SOFT TISSUE PROTEINS ...
    [Venugopal, B. and T.D. Luckey. Metal Toxicity in Mammals, 2. New York: Plenum Press, 1978.90]**PEER REVIEWED**

    ABSORPTION FROM INTESTINAL TRACT IS GREATER WITH INORG THAN ORG FORM OF MERCURY. BY INHALATION OF INORG MERCURY ... CONCN RANGING FROM 2.91 TO 26.18 MG/CU M, AN AVG OF 24.16% OF THAT INHALED WAS ABSORBED.
    [Browning, E. Toxicity of Industrial Metals. 2nd ed. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1969.227]**PEER REVIEWED**

    ... Aryl- and alkylmercury fungicides applied to rice leaves were absorbed and eventually accumulate in rice grains where 11-17% of the Hg was in organic form. Total Hg residues in treated rice were in the range 0.05-0.6 ppm. /Aryl-and alkylmercury fungicides/
    [Fukunaga K et al; Environmental Toxicology of Pesticides; Matsumara F, Boush GM, eds (1972) as cited in Nat'l Research Council Canada; Effects of Mercury in the Canadian Environment p.101 (1979) NRCC No. 16739]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Phenylmercury absorbed through the skin from contaminated diapers affected urinary excretion in infants in Buenos Aires. The effects were reversible and quantitatively related to the concn of urinary Hg. Excretion of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, an enzyme in the brush-borders of renal tubular cells, increased in a dose-dependent manner when Hg excretion exceeded a threshold value. Urine volume also increased but at a higher threshold with respect to Hg. The results support the threshold concept of the systemic toxicity of metals. Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase is a useful and sensitive marker for preclinical effects of mercury. /Phenylmercury cmpd/
    [Gotelli CA et al; Science 227 (4687): 638-640 (1985)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    INORGANIC MERCURIAL SALTS AND ... PHENYL MERCURIC SALTS ARE SIMILAR IN MANY RESPECTS. ... A LARGER PORTION OF MERCURY IS ABSORBED AFTER ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF PHENYL MERCURIC SALTS. ... VIRTUALLY ALL ... MERCURY IN ... KIDNEYS IS PRESENT AS INORGANIC MERCURY FOLLOWING DOSES OF PHENYL MERCURY ... /PHENYL MERCURIC SALTS/
    [Casarett, L.J., and J. Doull. Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons. New York: MacMillan Publishing Co., 1975.486]**PEER REVIEWED**

    PHENYL MERCURY EVIDENTLY PENETRATES CELL MEMBRANES MORE EASILY THAN HG2+. ... ABOUT 90% OF PHENYL MERCURY IN BLOOD IS FOUND IN RED CELLS. HOWEVER NEITHER PHENYL MERCURY NOR METHOXYETHYL MERCURY IS TRANSFERRED THROUGH BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER OR PLACENTAL BARRIER TO LARGER EXTENT THAN HG2+. /PHENYL MERCURY/
    [Friberg, L., G.R. Nordberg, and V.B. Vouk. Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals. New York: Elsevier North Holland, 1979.524]**PEER REVIEWED**

    ... PHENYLMERCURIC CMPD ACT DIFFUSELY ON CAPILLARY ENDOTHELIUM & SPECIFICALLY @ SITES OF EXCRETION- THE KIDNEY, COLON & MOUTH. /PHENYLMERCURIC CMPD/
    [Gilman, A. G., L. S. Goodman, and A. Gilman. (eds.). Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 6th ed. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc. 1980.1624]**PEER REVIEWED**

    ... PHENYLMERCURY CMPD ... DECOMP TO INORG MERCURY DERIV IN BODY ... EARLY AFTER ADMIN, DISTRIBUTION PATTERNS OF PHENYL MERCURY CHLORIDE IN ORGANS & BLOOD ARE MORE SIMILAR TO ... ALKYLMERCURIALS THAN ... /MERCURY CHLORIDE/ ... LATER PERIOD ... DISTRIBUTION PATTERNS BECOME SIMILAR TO ... MERCURY CHLORIDE. /PHENYLMERCURY CMPD/
    [Menzie, C. M. Metabolism of Pesticides, An Update. U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish, Wild-life Service, Special Scientific Report - Wildlife No. 184, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, l974.243]**PEER REVIEWED**

    ABSORPTION, DISTRIBUTION, & EXCRETION OF HG OF ORG MERCURIALS IS DETERMINED BY PHYSICOCHEMICAL FACTORS & EXTENT OF IN-VIVO CONVERSION TO INORG HG. /ORGANIC MERCURIALS/
    [Goodman, L.S., and A. Gilman. (eds.) The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 5th ed. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., 1975.935]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Alkyl mercury compounds affect the central nervous system and accumulate in the brain. The elimination of these compounds (alkyl mercury) from the body is somewhat slower than the inorganic mercury compounds. ... /Alkyl mercury compounds/
    [Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 3rd ed., Volumes 1-26. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, 1978-1984.15(81) 167]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Methylmercury compounds can be absorbed by inhalation. Vapors of methylmercury salts readily penetrate the membranes of the lung, & the absorption rate can be estimated to be around 80%. In cases of exposure to alkylmercury salt aerosols, the absorption rate would be dependent on particle size & on the rate of deposition in the respiratory tract. /Organic mercury compounds/
    [Friberg, L., Nordberg, G.F., Kessler, E. and Vouk, V.B. (eds). Handbook of the Toxicology of Metals. 2nd ed. Vols I, II.: Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., 1986.V2 418]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Absorption of alkylmercury compounds by the skin is likely to occur. The rate will be dependent on the type of compound, the concn & the condition of the skin. /Organic mercury compounds/
    [Friberg, L., Nordberg, G.F., Kessler, E. and Vouk, V.B. (eds). Handbook of the Toxicology of Metals. 2nd ed. Vols I, II.: Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., 1986.V2 419]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Alkyl & aryl mercury compounds ... are transported mainly in assoc with the erythrocytes. ... There is striking differences in the distribution & storage of different classes of organic mercury compounds, & this appears to be the basis for the differences in their toxic effects when given in repeated doses. /Organic mercury compounds/
    [Hayes, Wayland J., Jr. Pesticides Studied in Man. Baltimore/London: Williams and Wilkins, 1982.15]**PEER REVIEWED**

    In two fatal cases involving ethyl mercury in Iraq, 8 to 10 ppm were found in the kidney, 6 to 7 ppm in liver, 3 to 5 ppm in cerebellum & 15 ppm in blood. /Alkyl mercury/
    [Gosselin, R.E., R.P. Smith, H.C. Hodge. Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products. 5th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1984.III-268]**PEER REVIEWED**

    The difference in excretion rate of different forms of mercury each tagged with (203)mercury was explained at least in part by finding that, whereas inorganic mercury was excreted in the bile of rats only with substances of high molecular wt, both methyl mercury & phenyl mercury were excreted with substances of both high & low molecular wt. The rate of enterohepatic circulation of (203)Hg increased, but its total excretion from rats decreased in proportion to its assoc with low molecular wt substances in the bile. It was thought likely that the difference depended on the rate of resorption of the high & low molecular materials from the intestine. /Organic mercury compounds/
    [Hayes, Wayland J., Jr. Pesticides Studied in Man. Baltimore/London: Williams and Wilkins, 1982.16]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Perhaps because these various forms of organic mercury /aryl & alkoxyalkyl mercury/ are so rapaidly converted to inorganic mercury, they do not appear to cross the blood-brain barrier appreciably. Thus, shortly after single exposures the brains of laboratory mammals contain much less mercury than do other organs & tissues; kidneys & liver accumulate the major burden. With time the retained mercury is redistributed, so that the blood/brain concentration ratio falls toward 1.0. As with inorganic salts of mercury, repeated exposure to these organomercurials causes slow but progressive increases in brain levels of mercury. /Aryl and alkoxyalkyl mercury/
    [Gosselin, R.E., R.P. Smith, H.C. Hodge. Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products. 5th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1984.III-267]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Very slow elimination of mercury was observed in the deposit-feeding bivalve macoma balthica from the chronically polluted area, and approximately 6% of the total mercury methyl mercury chloride plus PhHgCl. This is >3-fold lower than found in mytilus edulis from the same collecting site. A difference in the mercury (Hg) speciation (ie total Hg, total organic Hg, methyl mercury chloride and PhHgCl) in mytilus Edulis from the 2 Hg-polluted areas is thought to reflect the different character of the Hg pollution in the areas.
    [Riisgaerd HU et al; Mar Biol 86 (1): 55-62 (1985)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    ABSORPTION FROM INTESTINAL TRACT IS GREATER WITH INORG THAN ORG FORM OF MERCURY. BY INHALATION OF INORG MERCURY ... CONCN RANGING FROM 2.91 TO 26.18 MG/CU M, AN AVG OF 24.16% OF THAT INHALED WAS ABSORBED. /MERCURY CMPD/
    [Browning, E. Toxicity of Industrial Metals. 2nd ed. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1969.227]**PEER REVIEWED**

    ABSORPTION, DISTRIBUTION, & EXCRETION OF HG OF ORG MERCURIALS IS DETERMINED BY PHYSICOCHEMICAL FACTORS & EXTENT OF IN-VIVO CONVERSION TO INORG MERCURY. /ORGANIC MERCURIALS/
    [Goodman, L.S., and A. Gilman. (eds.) The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 5th ed. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., 1975.935]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Neutron-activated mercury (Hg) was admin by gavage to female BALB/c mice. Counts of (197) Hg and (103) Hg in the whole body, urine, and feces were followed for up to 36 days. Elimination of Hg fitted a 3-compartment model. Nonpregnant mice eliminated approx 87.5% of the dose at a fast rate (half-life= 9 hr), 12% at an intermediate rate (half-life= 2 days), and 0.5% at a slow rate (half-life= 5 days). Each half-time was about 7 times shorter than the corresponding half-time fitted to published data on rats. Mice were also faster than humans in eliminating the ingested Hg. Pregnancy slowed down the intermediate rate of elimination. The total admin dose was recovered from feces and urine in a 9:1 ratio. Organ weights and Hg burdens were measured after serial sacrifice. Peak concentrations were reached within 2 days, with highest levels in kidneys followed by placenta and livers. In brains, peak concentrations were delayed and low. Subsequent losses of Hg differed widely in rate constants, with fastest overall rates in the brain, intestine, and integument, followed in order by whole body, liver, and kidneys. Ten days after dosing, Hg concn ratios of placenta to 17-day-old fetus were 20:1; 11 days after dosing, and with <2% of body burden remaining, body concn ratios of mother to neonate were 4:1. ... Rapid elimination coupled with a placental barrier shielded fetuses from equilibrating with the peak concns of Hg found in dams after a single dose.
    [Berg GG, Smith BS; J Am Coll Toxicol 2 (4): 307-17 (1983)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Therapeutic or Normal Blood Level: The concn of inorganic mercury the blood (serum or plasma) following therapeutically effective dosage in humans is: 0.018-0.062 mg%; 0.18-0.62 ug/ml. /Inorganic mercury/
    [Winek CL; Drug & Chemical Blood Level Data Mercury (1985)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    In the case of inorganic divalent mercury, approx 15% of an oral, non-toxic dose is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and retained in body tissues. /Inorganic divalent mercury/
    [USEPA; Mercury Health Effects Update p.4-32 (1984) EPA 600/8-84-019F]**PEER REVIEWED**

    The rate of aryl and inorganic Hg excretion is similar to and considerably faster than that of MeHg. In the rat, it has been reported that 90% of a single iv dose of PhHg or inorganic Hg is eliminated in 20 d, whereas MeHg requires in excess of 150 d ... . In the case of the organomercurials, rate of excretion is affected by rate of biotransformation to Hg+. /Aryl and inorganic Hg/
    [Chang, L.W. (ed.). Toxicology of Metals. Boca Raton, FL: Lewis Publishers, 19961071]**PEER REVIEWED**

    A large body of evidence indicates that the kinetics of mercurial excretion are influenced by the nature of the compound and the animal species under investigation (e.g., Mercury in the environment). ... In all species investigated, short-chain alkyl mercurials are excreted at a slower rate than other compound with the half-life of MeHg excretion ranging from 8 d in the mouse to approximately 1000 d in certain species of fish and shellfish ... . /Mercurials/
    [Chang, L.W. (ed.). Toxicology of Metals. Boca Raton, FL: Lewis Publishers, 19961071]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Inorganic mercury is eliminated mainly in the urine and feces ... . Urinary elimination of mercury after intake of methyl mercury is only about 10%. With an average intake of methyl mercury with food of a few micrograms per day in the general population, this form of Hg should contribute relatively little to the urinary excretion of Hg. Uptake of inorganic Hg from sources other than amalgam fillings is of minor importance ... Urinary data from Swedish subjects confirm a limited effect from non amalgam sources of mercury on urinary excretion of mercury ... . /Inorganic mercury/
    [Chang, L.W. (ed.). Toxicology of Metals. Boca Raton, FL: Lewis Publishers, 1996473]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Elimination of mercury is influenced by the transformation of the methylmercury and the ensuing tissue distribution. Excretion of elemental and divalent mercury occurs primarily in the urine and feces, with an elimination half life of 40 to 60 days. The bile and feces are the major routes of excretion for methylmercury. Methylmercury is reabsorbed from the gut, and enterohepatic circulation is present. The excretion half life is about 70 days. The half times in specific organs, most notably the brain, may be much longer. /Mercury/
    [Clayton, G.D., F.E. Clayton (eds.) Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Volumes 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, 2E, 2F: Toxicology. 4th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1993-1994.2130-31]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Biological Half-Life:

    The average biological half-time of a tracer dose of divalent inorganic mercury compounds in man is 42 days for the whole body and 26 days for blood.
    [USEPA; Mercury Health Effects Update p.2-5 (1984) EPA 600/8-84-019F]**PEER REVIEWED**

    The metal is excreted in the urine and feces with a half-life of about 60 days. /Inorganic Salts of Mercury/
    [Hardman, J.G., L.E. Limbird, P.B. Molinoff, R.W. Ruddon, A.G. Goodman (eds.). Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 9th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1996.1656]**PEER REVIEWED**

    EXCEPT FOR EXCRETION BY SALIVA, MERCURY IS EXCRETED BY LIVER THROUGH BILE & ALSO BY MUCOUS MEMBRANES OF SMALL INTESTINES & COLON. ... IN RATS ... ELIMINATION CURVE IS ... A MULTI-PHASIC EXPONENTIAL CURVE, HAVING A RAPID PHASE WITH A HALF-LIFE OF ABOUT 5 DAYS, ANOTHER PHASE WITH A HALF-LIFE OF 1 MO, & STILL ANOTHER ... OF ABOUT 3 MO.
    [Friberg, L., Nordberg, G.F., Kessler, E. and Vouk, V.B. (eds). Handbook of the Toxicology of Metals. 2nd ed. Vols I, II.: Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., 1986.413]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Half-lives may be different in different species. Initial half-lives of ethyl mercury were 4.4 days in mice & 7 to 10 days in rats of different ages. /Organic mercury compounds/
    [Hayes, Wayland J., Jr. Pesticides Studied in Man. Baltimore/London: Williams and Wilkins, 1982.16]**PEER REVIEWED**

    The biologic half-life for the total body burden of Hg in humans has been reported to range from 70 to 74 d ... .
    [Chang, L.W. (ed.). Toxicology of Metals. Boca Raton, FL: Lewis Publishers, 19961071]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Mechanism of Action:

    Toxic effects are ... due to partial conversion of mercurous salt into mercury & the mercuric salt. /Mercurous salts/
    [Clarke, M. L., D. G. Harvey and D. J. Humphreys. Veterinary Toxicology. 2nd ed. London: Bailliere Tindall, 1981.61]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Mercury readily forms covalent bonds with sulfur, & it is this property that accounts for most of the biological properties of the metal. When sulfur is in form of sulfhydryl groups, divalent mercury replaces the hydrogen atom to form mercaptides ... Mercurials even in low concn are capable of inactivating sulfhydryl enzymes and ... interfering with cellular metabolism & function. ... Mercury also combines with other ligands of physiological importance, such as phosphoryl, carboxyl, amide & amine groups.
    [Hardman, J.G., L.E. Limbird, P.B. Molinoff, R.W. Ruddon, A.G. Goodman (eds.). Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 9th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1996.1656]**PEER REVIEWED**

    They cause agglutination and hemolysis of erythrocytes; Hg2+ ions enter into ... coordination or chelation complexes with erythrocytes, causing clumping of cells. At low concn Hg2+ ions initially block glucose entry by complexing with phosphate ligands and by incr passive alkali-ion permeability, and then enter the cell & accumulate. In vitro studies on erythrocytes show presence of Hg2+ binding sites on erythrocyte membranes; cellular membrane permeability is affected by binding of Hg ions to thiol & phosphate ligands. /Mercury salts/
    [Venugopal, B. and T.D. Luckey. Metal Toxicity in Mammals, 2. New York: Plenum Press, 1978.95]**PEER REVIEWED**

    At low concn Hg2+ ions accumulate in liver lysosomes, & at high concn Hg2+ ions rupture the lysosomes & release destructive acid hydrolases. Studies on Hg2+ induced kidney necrosis revealed decreased lysosomal enzyme activity and mitochondrial cytochrome-C activity. The nephrotoxic effect of Hg2+ in female is more prominent than in male. ... Studies with isolated cells indicate changes in cell membrane permeability, decr electric potential across cell membrane, loss of cellular potassium, reduced cellular uptake of glucose, & a strong inhibition of cellular respiratory enzymes. ... It induces formation of metallothionein. ... Mercury ions induce diuresis by increasing permeability of renal proximal tubules to Na+ ions. /Mercury ion/
    [Venugopal, B. and T.D. Luckey. Metal Toxicity in Mammals, 2. New York: Plenum Press, 1978.96]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Mercuric salts in vitro enhanced viral transformations of hamster cells and reduced the molecular weight of DNA in Chinese hamster ovary cells, but did not produce mutagenesis in non-mammalian cells. /Mercury salts/
    [USEPA; Mercury Health Effects Update p.5-14 (1984) EPA 600/8-84-019F]**PEER REVIEWED**

    The short chain alkylmercurials undergo the slowest breakdown in vivo with methylmercury being the most stable. /Alkylmercurials/
    [WHO; Environ Health Criteria: Mercury p.29 (1976)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    The mechanism of toxicity of mercury is not very specific & the mercurial fungicides all owe their activity to the mercuric ion moiety. In the organic mercurials the alkyl or aryl portion serves to conduct the mercuric ion to the site of action, by reason of lipoid solubility, & also determines the stability & rate of release of the mercury ion. The biochemical action of the mercury fungicides is related to the affinity of the mercuric ion for the sulfhydryl groups of essential respiratory enzymes. Thus, mercury treatment decreases the oxygen uptake of treated fungus spores, & poisoned spores can be revived by subsequent application of sulfhydryl compounds such as glutathione or cysteine.
    [White-Stevens, R. (ed.). Pesticides in the Environment: Volume 1, Part 1, Part 2. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc., 1971.23]**PEER REVIEWED**

    That the syndromes of chronic intoxication induced by inorganic mercury & by many organic mercurials are very similar is probably explained by the rapid metabolic breakdown of these mercurials to the mercuric ion. For example, studies on the fate & excretion of phenylmercuric acetate in rats, dogs & chicks indicate that phenyl mercury is absorbed intact from many portals, transported largely in red blood cells, metabolized in the liver & perhaps elsewhere to release inorganic mercury, which in the rat is excreted mostly in the feces. Within 2 to 4 days, essentially all of the phenyl mercury was broken down. Hydroxylation of the phenyl ring was thought to precede rupture of the carbon-to-mercury bond; hydroxyphenyl mercury compounds decompose spontaneously in the presence of acid & cysteine or BAL. Methoxyethyl mercury salts & at least some of the mercurial diuretics may be even more labile. In rats sc injected methoxyethyl mercury chloride decomposed (either spontaneously or enzymatically) with a half-time of about 1 day to release inorganic mercury that largely migrated to the kidneys & was eventually excreted. /Aryl and alkoxyalkyl mercury/
    [Gosselin, R.E., R.P. Smith, H.C. Hodge. Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products. 5th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1984.III-266]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Mercuric salts induce hypercoagulability in blood when 3 mg/kg is injected sc in dogs daily for 3 days; Increase in fibrinogen content & shortening of prothrombin time in blood were observed. ... /The salts/ cause agglutination & hemolysis of erythrocytes; Hg2+ ions enter into ... coordination or chelation complexes with erythrocytes, causing clumping of cells. At low concn, Hg2+ ions initially block glucose entry by complexing with phosphate ligands & by incr passive alkali-ion permeability, & then enter the cell & accumulate. In vitro studies on erythrocytes show presence of Hg2+ binding sites on erythrocyte membranes; Cellular membrane permeability is affected by binding of Hg ions to thiol & phosphate ligands. /Mercury salts/
    [Venugopal, B. and T.D. Luckey. Metal Toxicity in Mammals, 2. New York: Plenum Press, 1978.95]**PEER REVIEWED**

    The effects of mercury compounds on passive ion permeability have been studied extensively in erythrocytes ... . Although the anionic aqueous channel appears to be unaffected by mercury, concentrations of mercury as low as 5 uM increase the cationic permeability to Na+ and K+ ... . An increase in the uptake and efflux of Rb+ in astrocytes after incubation with 10 to 100 uM mercury has also been demonstrated, indicating an alteration in the ability of astrocytes to maintain a transmembrane K+ gradient. Methylmercury has also been shown to induce changes in the distribution of anionic groups on the surface membrane of mouse astrocytes ... . In common with other metals such as lead and aluminum, mercury has a general inhibitory effect on the enzyme Na+, K+ ATPase in many tissues ... .
    [Chang, L.W. (ed.). Toxicology of Metals. Boca Raton, FL: Lewis Publishers, 1996576]**PEER REVIEWED**

    An involvement of astroglia in methylimercury intoxication has been demonstrated histochemically in rats ... . Organic mercury accumulated initially in the brain during the "silent phase", mainly in glial cells, while at the onset of neurological signs, the same staining was also observed in neurons. ... Mercury may also have a direct deleterious effect on astrocytes, leading to a loss of cerebral homeostasis and secondary neuronal death. Methylmercury has been shown to induce irreversible inhibition of DNA and protein synthesis in astrocytes, while the effect of mercuric chloride was reversible ... . The effects of methylmercury on astrocytic K+ flux may also compromise extracellular K+ homeostasis either by spatial buffering or active uptake, resulting in cellular swelling ... . /Mercury/
    [Chang, L.W. (ed.). Toxicology of Metals. Boca Raton, FL: Lewis Publishers, 1996576]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Interactions:

    ... Mercury /binds/ to selenium (Se) & tellurium (Te) but with mutually antagonistic effect on their toxicities. /Mercury/
    [Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982.1786]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Mercurials have been shown to interact with phospholipid monolayers and model membranes ... . Hg2+ interacts specifically with phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidylcholine (PC), phospholipids that contain a primary amine in their polar head group ... . Mercurials also form complexes with purine and pyrimidine bases, nucleosides, nucleotides, and nucleic acids ... and are mutagenic... . /Mercurials/
    [Chang, L.W. (ed.). Toxicology of Metals. Boca Raton, FL: Lewis Publishers, 19961056]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Pharmacology:

    Interactions:

    ... Mercury /binds/ to selenium (Se) & tellurium (Te) but with mutually antagonistic effect on their toxicities. /Mercury/
    [Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982.1786]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Mercurials have been shown to interact with phospholipid monolayers and model membranes ... . Hg2+ interacts specifically with phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidylcholine (PC), phospholipids that contain a primary amine in their polar head group ... . Mercurials also form complexes with purine and pyrimidine bases, nucleosides, nucleotides, and nucleic acids ... and are mutagenic... . /Mercurials/
    [Chang, L.W. (ed.). Toxicology of Metals. Boca Raton, FL: Lewis Publishers, 19961056]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Drug Idiosyncrasies:

    Mercuric ... compounds locally applied to skin caused idiosyncratic skin symptoms like erythema & more severe exfoliative dermatitis, involving whole body.
    [Friberg, L., G.R. Nordberg, and V.B. Vouk. Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals. New York: Elsevier North Holland, 1979.518]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Environmental Fate & Exposure:

    Environmental Fate/Exposure Summary:

    Mercury compounds may be released into the environment through the combustion of fuels containing mercury impurities and through their use in batteries (mercuric oxide), pigments (imported to the United States), catalysts, explosives (mercury fulminate), laboratory-based research, and through some pharmaceutical applications (ammoniated mercury and merbromin). Mercury compounds may also be released through outgasing from volcanic sources. Some mercury compounds found to occur naturally in the environment include cinnabar (mercuric sulfide), metacinnabar, tiemannite (mercuric selenide), montroydite (mercuric oxide), and coloradoite (mercuric telluride). Mercury generally tends to concentrate in sulfides and is found most commonly in the ore cinnabar which contains 86.2% mercury. Mercury compounds may enter the atmosphere in the particulate phase based their low to nonexistent and and vapor pressures. Deposition with precipitation is a major factor in removing mercury compounds from the atmosphere; however, if they are not subjected to wash-out or dry deposition processes, then they will likely be transformed by chemical or physical processes in the atmosphere. Exchange reactions between water and mercury compounds are likely to occur in the atmosphere. The result of these exchange reactions eventually results in the release of elemental mercury into the gaseous phase. Inorganic mercury compounds can be methylated by microorganisms indigenous to soils, fresh water, and saltwater. This process is mediated by various microbial populations under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Also, exchange reactions between water and mercury compounds may result in the release of elemental mercury into the environment. Once mercury compounds are released into moist soil environments, they may dissociate depending upon their solubility. Upon dissolution, mercury will either be associated with its respective anion or be associated with humic matter. Studies indicate that mercury compounds, once deposited on soil, are absorbed to the soil and do not leach. Mercuric sulfide has been found to strongly adsorb to soil, and even with weathering, any mercury released from the mercuric sulfide is readsorbed by the soil. Inorganic mercury compounds are not expected to volatilize from moist soils or water surfaces because of their low Henry's Law constants. For example, the Henry's Law constants for mercuric hydroxide and bichloride are 7.82X10-8 and 7.09X10-10 atm cu m/mole 25 deg C, respectively. Mercury compounds are not expected to bioconcentrate unless they are converted to methylmercury in the environment. Conversion of inorganic mercury compounds to methylmercury can occur within 30 to 50 days in the environment. Occupational exposure to inorganic mercury compounds has been investigated in chloralkali plants, mercury mines, and refineries. High mercury levels in blood and urine have been reported for all these occupational exposure situations, although levels vary according to work environment conditions. The EPA has reported that dietary intake is the most important source of exposure to mercury compounds for the general public. (SRC)
    **PEER REVIEWED**

    Probable Routes of Human Exposure:

    INHALATION OF VAPOR BY LABORATORY WORKERS IN CLOSED SPACE LED TO BRONCHIAL IRRITATION /AND CHARACTERISTIC MERCURY POISONING SYMPTOMS/ ... CHRONIC MERCURIALISM IN FUR-CUTTING AND FELT-HAT INDUSTRIES /IS REPORTED/. ALTHOUGH MERCURIC NITRATE WAS MATERIAL USED TO TREAT FUR FROM WHICH FELT WAS MADE, MERCURY WAS GRADUALLY RELEASED FROM FUR AND FELT IN FORM OF METALLIC MERCURY VAPOR. ... THE WORKERS HAD MIXED EXPOSURE TO DUST OF MERCURY CMPD (ESP THE NITRATE) AND TO VAPOR OF ELEMENT. ... POISONING WAS SIMILAR TO THAT OBSERVED ... /WITH/ METALLIC MERCURY ONLY.
    [Hayes, Wayland J., Jr. Pesticides Studied in Man. Baltimore/London: Williams and Wilkins, 1982.12]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Acute poisoning usually results from oral ingestion of highly dissociated inorganic prepn, but it may also be caused by ... mercurial ointments applied topically. /MERCURY/
    [Gilman, A.G., L.S.Goodman, and A. Gilman. (eds.). Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 7th ed. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., 1985.1611]**PEER REVIEWED**

    The dominant food source of mercury in the human diet is fish and fish products. ... In terms of total Hg, the diet greatly exceeds other media, including air and water, as a source of human exposure and absorption of Hg. /Mercury/
    [USEPA; Mercury Health Effects Update p.2-4 (1984) EPA 600/8-84-019F]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Accumulation of mercury in the terrestrial and aquatic food chains results in risks for man mainly through the consumption of: fish from contaminated waters; especially predator species, tuna fish, swordfish and other large oceanic fish even if caught considerably off shore; other seafoods including muscles and crayfish, fish-eating birds and mammals; and eggs of fish eating birds. /Mercury cmpds/
    [WHO; Environ Health Criteria: Mercury p.55 (1976)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    The EPA has reported that dietary intake is the most important source of exposure to mercury compounds for the general public(1). Individuals currently living in proximity to former mercury production facilities, chloroalkali facilities, municipal and medical waste incinerators, other mercury-disposal or recycling facilities, or any hazardous waste sites where mercury compounds have been detected are at risk of receiving potentially higher-than-normal background exposure(2). Occupational exposure to inorganic mercury compounds have been investigated in chloralkali plants, mercury mines, and refineries. High mercury levels in blood and urine have been reported for all these occupational exposure situations, although levels vary according to work environment conditions(3). The number of workers exposed to different mercury compounds have been reported. For example, the estimated total number of workers (number of women workers in parenthesis) exposed in 1983 to mercury chloride and mercuric sulfide was 45,492 (18,717) and 98 (0), respectively(2).
    [(1) WHO; Methyl Mercury - Environmental Health Criteria 101. Geneva. NY, NY: World Health Organization. WHO Publications Center pp. 144 (1990) (2) ATSDR; Toxicological Profile for Mercury p. 312 (1998) Research Triangle Institute 205-93-0606 (1998) (3) WHO; Inorganic Mercury - Environmental Health Criteria 118. Geneva. NY, NY: World Health Organization. WHO Publications Center pp. 168 (1991)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Average Daily Intake:

    The intake of total dietary mercury (Hg) has been measured ... over a number of years for various age groups. The average daily intake over the period 1973 to 1982 has been in the range of 2000 to 7000 ng Hg for adults and up to 1000 ng Hg for toddlers and infants. The most recent figures (fiscal year 1981-82) were 3000 ng Hg for adults, 1000 ng Hg for toddlers, and less than 1000 ng Hg for infants. /Total mercury/
    [Gartrell M; US Environmental Protection Agency Profile No ECAO-HA-83-3 as cited in USEPA; Mercury Health Effects Update p.3-20 (1984) EPA 600/8-84-019F]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Assuming an ambient air level of 50 ng/cu m, the average daily intake of metallic mercury vapor would amount to 1 ug/day due to inhalation. ... The average daily intake of those sub-groups of the general population living in specially polluted areas is difficult to estimate with any accuracy. ... Daily intake from occupational exposure is almost impossible to estimate because of the wide variation in exposure conditions in industry. /Total mercury/
    [WHO; Environ Health Criteria: Mercury p.64 (1976)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    The estimated daily intakes of inorganic mercury compounds and methylmercury for the general population are 4.3 ug/day and 2.41 ug/day, respectively(1). Mercury intake from drinking-water was estimated to be approximately 50 ng/day and the mercury ingested is in the inorganic form (ie. mercuric chloride)(1). It is estimated that average daily intake of inorganic mercury compounds by the general population through ambient air, through the consumption of fish, non-fish food, and drinking water is 0.002 ug/day, 0.600 ug/day, 3.6 ug/day and 0.050 ug/day, respectively(2).
    [(1) WHO; Methyl Mercury - Environmental Health Criteria 101. Geneva. NY, NY: World Health Organization. WHO Publications Center pp. 144 (1990) (2) ATSDR; Toxicological Profile for Mercury p. 343. Research Triangle Institute 205-93-0606 (1998)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    ATMOSPHERIC INTAKE: 0.14 ug/day total mercury (elemental and methyl mercury) (assuming an avg ambient concn 7 ng/cu m)(1). FOOD INTAKE: 16.3 ug/day total mercury (assuming avg mercury concn in fish, 0.4 ug/g and an avg concn in other foods, 0.004 ug/g(1)).
    [(1) Bennett BG; IARC 71: 115-28 (1986)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Natural Pollution Sources:

    Mercury ore is found in rocks of all classes. Common host rocks are limestone, calcareous shales, sandstone, serpentine (3MgO.2SiO2.2H2O), chert andesite (soda lime feldspar), basalt, and rhyolite (alkaline feldspar and quartz).
    [Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982.1769]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Joint FAO/WHO expert committee on Food Additives (1972) quotes the major source of mercury (Hg) as the natural degassing of the earth's crust ... in the range of 25,000-150,000 ton of Hg/yr.
    [WHO; Environ Health Criteria: Mercury p.43 (1976)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    The mercury (Hg) content of some common ore and gangue minerals as a result of its coexistence in a deposit with cinnabar, metacinnabar or other Hg minerals is as follows: Tetrahedrite (Cu12Sb4S13) 17.6-21%; Grey copper ores (Cu,As,SB)XSy 14%; Spalerite (ZnS) 1%; Wurtzite (ZnS) 0.03%; Stibnite (Sb2S3) 1.3%; Realgar (AsS) 2.2%; Pyrite (FeS2) 2%; Galena (PbS) 0.02%; Marcasite (FeS2) 0.07%; Native gold (Au) 60%; Native silver (Ag) 30%; Barite (BaSO4) 0.5%; Cerussite (PbCO3) 0.1%; Flourite (CaF2) 0.01%; Calcite (CaCO3) 0.03%; Aragonite (CaCO3) 3.7%; Siderite (FeCO3) 0.01%; Pyrolusite (MnO2) 2%; Hydrated iron oxides Fe2O3nH2O 0.2%; Graphite (Carbon) 0.01%; and Coal 2%. /Total mercury/
    [Jonasson IR, Boyle RW; Bull Can Inst Min Metal 65: 32-9 (1972) as cited in Nat'l Research Council Canada; Effects of Mercury in the Canadian Environment p.32 (1979) NRCC No. 16739]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Fossil Fuels: Coal 10-8,530 ppb; Coal in mercuriferous basins 20-300,000 ppb; Crude oils 20-2000 ppb; Petroleum crudes in mercuriferous belts 1,900-21,000 ppb; Bitumens, solid hydrocarbons, asphalts, etc 2,000-900,000 ppb.
    [Jonasson IR, Boyle RW; Bull Can Inst Min Metal 65: 32-9 (1972) as cited in Nat'l Research Council Canada; Effects of Mercury in the Canadian Environment p.39 (1979) NRCC No. 16739]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Mercury is released into the environment from volcanoes and hot springs.
    [Miller DR, Buchanan JM; Atmos Trans of Mercury: Exposure Commitment and Uncertainty Calculations. MARC Report #14 p.1 (1979)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Background levels of naturally-occuring mercury in the environment are generally low(1). Mercury content in rock samples average between 1.0 to 12 ng/g for different types of igneous and sedimentary rocks(2). Bituminous shales may have higher concentrations varying between 32 to 340 ng/g and sulfide ores may have exceptionally high mercury contents(2). Parent material of mineral soils will have similar concentrations; ie. in most cases from 2 to 8 ug/kg for normal rock forming minerals(2). The majority of mercury in the environment is from natural sources rather than the result of human activities(1). Mercury compounds found in the environment include cinnabar (mercuric sulfide), metacinnabar, tiemannite (mercuric selenide), montroydite (mercuric oxide), and coloradoite (mercuric telluride)(3). Mercury generally tends to concentrate in sulfides and is found most commonly in the ore cinnabar which contains 86.2% mercury(4,5). The average concentration of mercury in the earth's crust is 0.5 ppm, but the actual concentration varies considerably depending on location(5). In seawater, mercury tetrachloride is the dominant mercury salt detected, however, it is probable that mercury disulfide may also exist(1).
    [(1) WHO; Mercury - Environmental Aspects - Geneva. NY, NY: World Health Organization. WHO Publications Center U.S.A. pp. 115 (1989) (2) Lindqvist O ed; Mercury in the Swedish Environment. Recent Research on causes, consequences and corrective methods. Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Pub pp. 261 (1991) (3) Simon M et al; Ullmann's Encycl Indust Chem. 5th ed. Deerfield Beach, FL: VCH Pub, A16: 269-298 (1990) (4) Bodek I et al; Environmental Inorganic Chemistry, Properties, Processes, and Estimation Methods. SETAC Special Publications Series. NY, NY: Pergamon Press, pp. 7.10-1 to 7.10-17 (1988) (5) ATSDR; Toxicological Profile for Mercury p. 312 Research Triangle Institute 205-93-0606 (1998)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Artificial Pollution Sources:

    Mercuric salts are still widely employed in industry, and industrial discharge ... into rivers has polluted many parts of the world.
    [Gilman, A.G., T.W. Rall, A.S. Nies and P. Taylor (eds.). Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 8th ed. New York, NY. Pergamon Press, 1990.1598]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Concentrated local discharges associated with industrial activities and waste disposal. Diffuse discharges generally associated with combustion of fuels containing mercury impurities. Mercury is released in various chemical forms. /Mercury compounds/
    [Miller DR, Buchanan JM; MARC Report: Atmos Trans of Mercury: Exposure Commitment and Uncertainty Calculations #14 p.1 (1979)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    ... INADEQUATE AND IMPROPER DISPOSAL OF INDUSTRIAL MERCURY WASTES INCR MERCURY LEVELS IN WATER AND ATMOSPHERE. ... MICROORGANISMS CONVERT ELEMENTAL MERCURY INTO METHYL MERCURY SALT (CH3HGCL) AND DIMETHYL MERCURY, WHICH ... ESCAPE INTO THE ATMOSPHERE. MOST OF THESE REACTIONS TAKE PLACE IN SEDIMENTS OF RIVER AND OCEAN BEDS. ... MAJOR SOURCE OF MERCURY CONTAMINATION IS DISPOSAL OF INDUSTRIAL MERCURY WASTES INTO WATER WHERE THE WASTES SETTLE AS SEDIMENT, ONLY TO BE RECYCLED INTO THE WATER & AIR.
    [Venugopal, B. and T.D. Luckey. Metal Toxicity in Mammals, 2. New York: Plenum Press, 1978.87]**PEER REVIEWED**

    ... Maximum ground-level concn of Hg for 12 USA coal-fired power plants were 0.035-6.9 ug/cu m.
    [Vaugh WP, Fuller SR; Illinois Institute for Environmental Quality Rep ILEQ 71-3 (1971) as cited in Nat'l Research Council Canada; Effects of Mercury in the Canadian Environment p.66 (1979) NRCC No. 16739]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Mercury (Hg) loss est from Canada fuel consumption and other Canadian sources: In 1974, approximately 12 ton Hg were discharged to the environment as a result of coal combustion. Approximately 90% was discharged to air as vapor, 9% was adsorbed onto fine particulate (controllable by particle-collecting devices) and approximately 1% remained in the bottom or grate ash. /Mercury compounds/
    [Nat'l Research Council Canada; Effects of Mercury in the Canadian Environment p.66 (1979) NRCC No. 16739]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Water borne pollution may originate in sewage, metal refining operations, or most notably, from chloralkali plants.
    [Nat'l Research Council Canada; Effects of Mercury in the Canadian Environment p.84 (1979) NRCC No. 16739]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Twenty thousand tons of mercury are released into the environment each year by human activities such as combustion of fossil fuels and other industrial release. /Mercury compounds/
    [Friberg, L., Nordberg, G.F., Kessler, E. and Vouk, V.B. (eds). Handbook of the Toxicology of Metals. 2nd ed. Vols I, II.: Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., 1986.387]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Mercury compounds may be released into the environment through their use in batteries (mercuric oxide), pigments (imported to the United States), catalysts, explosives (mercury fulminate), laboratory-based research, and through some pharmaceutical applications (ammoniated mercury and merbromin)(1). Other important man-made sources are fossil fuels combustion, smelting of sulfide ores, extraction of gold, effluent from chloralkali plants, production of cement, refuse incineration and especially through mining activities(2). The world-wide mining of mercury (in the form of mercuric sulfide) is estimated to be approximately 10,000 tons per year, however, this figure changes from year to year(2).
    [(1) DeVito SC; Kirk-Othmer Encycl Chem Technol. 4th ed. NY, NY: John Wiley and Sons. 16: 212-228 (1995) (2) WHO; Methyl Mercury - Environmental Health Criteria 101. Geneva NY, NY: World Health Organization. WHO Publications Center pp. 144 (1990)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Environmental Fate:

    Mercurous sulfate becomes gray on exposure to light with prodn of mercury and mercuric sulfate.
    [Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996.1006]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Atmospheric Fate: Hg in the environment is deposited and revolatilized many times, with a residence time in the atmosphere of at least a few days. In the volatile phase it can be transported hundreds of kilometers.
    [Miller DR, Buchanan JM; Atmospheric Transport of Mercury: Exposure Commitment and Uncertainty Calculations. MARC Report #14 p.3-6 (1979)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Aquatic Fate: The conversion, in aquatic environments, of inorganic mercury cmpd to methyl mercury implies that recycling of mercury from sediment to water to air and back could be a rapid process. /Inorganic mercury cmpd/
    [Callahan, M.A., M.W. Slimak, N.W. Gabel, et al. Water-Related Environmental Fate of 129 Priority Pollutants. Volume I. EPA-440/4 79-029a. Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, December 1979.14-11]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Terrestrial Fate: Losses of organomercury cmpd may occur when sludge is used as a fertilizer or when it is placed in a sanitary landfill. /Organomercury cmpd/
    [Nat'l Research Council Canada; Effects of Mercury in the Canadian Environment p.74 (1979) NRCC No. 16739]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Organic mercury compounds released into the environment are often broken down to elemental mercury or mercuric compounds. /Organic mercury compounds/
    [Friberg, L., Nordberg, G.F., Kessler, E. and Vouk, V.B. (eds). Handbook of the Toxicology of Metals. 2nd ed. Vols I, II.: Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., 1986.V2 392]**PEER REVIEWED**

    IN YATSUSHIRO SEA & MINAMATA BAY, THE CROAKER (ARGYROSOMUS ARGENTATUS) WAS A GOOD INDICATOR OF HG POLLUTION. MERCURY MIGRATED FROM SEDIMENT TO THE CROAKER BY WAY OF SUSPENDED PARTICULATE MATTER & ZOOPLANKTON. CONVERSION FROM INORGANIC TO METHYLMERCURY OCCURS AT THE STAGE OF ZOOPLANKTON.
    [NISHIMURA H, KUMAGAI M; WATER, AIR, SOIL POLLUT 20 (4): 401 (1983)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Aquatic Fate: In aquatic systems, mercury appears to bind to dissolved matter or fine particulates, while the transport of mercury bound to dust particles in the atmosphere or bed sediment particles in rivers and lakes is generally less substantial.
    [Nat'l Research Council Canada; Effects of Mercury in the Canadian Environment p.78 (1979) NRCC No. 16739]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Aquatic Fate: ... Mercury can be desorbed into the water column, transported by water (probably bound or chelated to some fine particles or dissolved substances), and redeposited on the bed sediment.
    [Nat'l Research Council Canada; Effects of Mercury in the Canadian Environment p.81 (1979) NRCC No. 16739]**PEER REVIEWED**

    TERRESTRIAL FATE: Once mercury compounds are released into moist soil environments, they may dissociate depending upon their solubility. Upon dissolution, mercury will either be associated with its respective anion or be associated with humic matter(1). Studies indicate that mercury compounds, once deposited on soil, are absorbed to the soil and do not leach(2,3). Mercuric sulfide has been found to strongly adsorb to soil, and even with weathering, any mercury released from the mercuric sulfide is readsorbed by the soil(2). Mercuric sulfide has very limited water solubility and is likely to have limited mobility in soil(2). The general vertical distribution pattern of mercury in soil is closely related to the distribution of the organic matter since functional groups, especially sulfides, in organic components strongly bind mercury(1). In contrast to most other metals, acidification of soils does not increase the solubility of mercury compounds. The adsorption on humic matter seems instead to increase at lower pH values(1). Several studies have indicated that most mercury (70-80%) is retained in the humus layer of soil. In the deeper layers of soil, hardly any accumulation of mercury takes place(1). Thus, mercury, once dissociated, is not expected to be very mobile in soil environments. Mercury compounds are not expected to volatilize to from moist soil surfaces based on their Henry's Law constants(4). For example, the Henry's Law constants for mercuric hydroxide and bichloride are 7.82X10-8 and 7.09X10-10 atm cu m/mole 25 deg C, respectively(5). Inorganic mercury compounds can be methylated by microorganisms indegenous to the soil environment(2). This process is mediated by various microbial populations under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Sulfur-reducing bacteria are responsible for most of the mercury methylation in the environment, however, yeast populations are also able to methylate mercury(2).
    [(1) Lindqvist O, ed; Mercury in the Swedish Environment. Recent research on causes, consequences and corrective methods. Netherlands, Kluwer Academic Publishers pp. 261 (1991) (2) ATSDR; Toxicological Profile for Mercury p. 312, 319-20 Research Triangle Institute 205-93-0606 (1998) (3) Bodek I et al; Environmental Inorganic Chemistry, Properties, Processes, and Estimation Methods. SETAC Special Publications Series. NY, NY: Pergamon Press pp. 7.10-1 to 7.10-17 (1988) (4) Lyman WJ et al; Handbook of Chemical Property Estimation Methods. Washington, DC: Amer Chem Soc pp. 4-9, 15-1 to 15-29 (1990) (5) WHO; Methyl Mercury - Environmental Health Criteria 101. Geneva NY, NY: World Health Organization. WHO Publications Center pp. 144 (1990)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    AQUATIC FATE: Volatilization of mercury compounds from water surfaces is not expected(1) based upon their Henry's Law constants(2). For example, the Henry's Law constants for mercuric hydroxide and bichloride are 7.82X10-8 and 7.09X10-10 atm cu m/mole 25 deg C, respectively(2). Solubility of mercury compounds in water, however, can differ greatly between the mercurial compounds. For example, mercuric sulfide has a water solubility of 11X10-20 mg/l(3), mercurous chloride has a water solubility of 2 mg/l at 25 deg C(1) and mercuric chloride has a solubility of 69 g/l at 20 deg C(1). Chlorine concentrations, however, in aqueous solution can increase the solubility of mercury compounds(4). At a concn of 35,460 ppm chlorine, the solubilities of mercuric oxide and mercuric sulfide increased by factors of 10+5 and 3.6X10+7, respectively(4). At a chlorine concn of only 3.5 ppm, the solubilities of these two compounds increases by factors of 55 and 408, respectively(4). The pH can also affect the solubility of some mercury compounds. The solubility of cinnabar increased by 30 times at a pH of 5 and even more by the addition of humic acid(4). The solubilities of mercuric oxide and mercuric chloride were also increased by humic acid(4). The reduction of divalent inorganic mercury compounds is relatively slow in water solution(3). Mercury compounds are strongly bound to organic matter in water and may be transported in runoff water from contaminated lakes to other surface waters and soils(3). Inorganic mercury compounds can be methylated by microorganisms indegenous to the aqueous environment(3). This process is mediated by various microbial populations under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Sulfur-reducing bacteria are responsible for most of the mercury methylation in the environment; however, yeast populations are also able to methylate mercury in the environment(3). Mercuric salts, are converted by bacteria to methylmercury which bioaccumulates(5). It has been proposed that methylmercury in fish arises from the bacterial methylation of inorganic mercury, either in the environment or in bacteria associated with fish gills, surface, or gut(5).
    [(1) Lyman WJ et al; Handbook of Chemical Property Estimation Methods. Washington, DC: Amer Chem Soc pp. 4-9, 15-1 to 15-29 (1990) (2) WHO; Methyl Mercury - Environmental Health Criteria 101. Geneva NY, NY: World Health Organization. WHO Publications Center pp. 144 (1990) (3) ATSDR; Toxicological Profile for Mercury p. 324, 327 Research Triangle Institute 205-93-0606 (1998) (4) Bodek I et al; Environmental Inorganic Chemistry, Properties, Processes, and Estimation Methods. SETAC Special Publications Series. NY, NY: Pergamon Press pp. 7.10-1 to 7.10-17 (1988) (5) WHO; Mercury - Environmental Aspects - Geneva. NY, NY: World Health Organization. WHO Publications Center U.S.A. pp. 115 (1989)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    ATMOSPHERIC FATE: In the atmosphere, particulate bound mercury constitutes only approximately 2% of total mercury in the air and has normally been found to be less than 0.1 ng/cu m in regions unaffected by local sources(1). Some mercury compounds which may exist in the particulate phase in the atmosphere are mercuric chloride, mercuric bromide, mercuric hydroxide, mercuric sulfide, and mercuric cyanide(1). The rest is elemental mercury in the gaseous phase. Deposition with precipitation is a major factor in removing mercury compounds from the atmosphere(1,2). If the mercury compound is not subjected to wash-out or dry deposition processes, then they will likely be transformed by chemical or physical processes in the atmosphere. Theoretical calculations on the photodissociation of mercuric compounds have indicated that mercuric chloride and mercuric cyanide are stable, while mercuric hydroxide may dissociate in the gas phase(1). Exchange reactions between water and mercury compounds are likely to occur in the atmosphere(1). The result of these exchange reactions eventually results in the release of elemental mercury into the gaseous phase.
    [(1) Lindqvist O, ed; Mercury in the Swedish Environment. Recent research on causes, consequences and corrective methods. Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Pub. pp. 261 (1991) (2) WHO; Mercury -Environmental Aspects - Geneva. NY, NY: World Health Organization. WHO Publications Center U.S.A. pp. 115 (1989)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Environmental Biodegradation:

    Inorganic forms of Hg can be converted to organic forms by microbial action in the biosphere. /Inorganic Mercury/
    [Schroeder WH; Envir Sci Tech 16 (7): 394A-400A (1982) as cited in Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Inorganic Mercury (Draft) p.41 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Mercuric ion Hg(2+) can be methylated by both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. /Mercuric ion Hg(2+)/
    [Nat'l Research Council Canada; Effects of Mercury in the Canadian Environment p.33 (1976) NRCC No. 16739]**PEER REVIEWED**

    ... Certain bacteria are capable of transforming mercuric ion to volatile elemental mercury. /Mercuric ion/
    [Callahan, M.A., M.W. Slimak, N.W. Gabel, et al. Water-Related Environmental Fate of 129 Priority Pollutants. Volume I. EPA-440/4 79-029a. Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, December 1979.14-9]**PEER REVIEWED**

    In general, NTA complexes of mercury ... can be expected to degrade much more slowly than those of nickel, zinc, and iron. /Nitrilotriacetic acid/
    [Nat'l Research Council Canada; NTA ( Nitrilotriacetic Acid)- An Ecological Appraisal p.13 (1976) NRCC No. 15023]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Upon entering an aqueous system, virtually any mercurial cmpd may be microbially converted to methyl mercury. /Mercury cmpd/
    [Callahan, M.A., M.W. Slimak, N.W. Gabel, et al. Water-Related Environmental Fate of 129 Priority Pollutants. Volume I. EPA-440/4 79-029a. Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, December 1979.14-9]**PEER REVIEWED**

    All forms of Hg (metal, vapor, inorganic, or organic) are converted to methyl mercury. Inorganic forms are converted by microbial action in the atmosphere to methyl mercury. /Mercurial cmpd/
    [Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Mercury (Draft) p.41 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    The mechanism of mercury elimination from wastewater was studied. The mercury-resistant bacterial Pseudomonas K62 strain at concn of 6X10+8 cells/ml was incubated for 6 hr with 30 ppm mercuric nitrate. 0% added mercury was removed from culture medium in which Pseudomonas was not present; whereas 47% of added mercury was removed in presence of Pseudomonas. Uptake of mercury was severely inhibited by sodium chloride, sodium sulfate, and mono- and dibasic potassium phosphate.
    [Menzie, C.M. Metabolism of Pesticides, Update II. U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish Wildlife Service, Special Scientific Report - Wildlife No. 2l2. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1978.174]**PEER REVIEWED**

    In soil all the organomercury compounds are decomposed to mercury salts or to metallic mercury which are the active fungicides. ... /It has been/ suggested that this decomposition takes place through base exchange to form organomercury clays which subsequently form mercury salts by further base exchange. These mercuric salts are then reduced to mercurous salts & to mercury. ... The metallic mercury liberated in the soil is ultimately converted to mercury sulfide by reaction with hydrogen sulfide liberated by soil microorganisms. /Mercury compounds/
    [White-Stevens, R. (ed.). Pesticides in the Environment: Volume 1, Part 1, Part 2. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc., 1971.22]**PEER REVIEWED**

    ... Microorganisms convert inorg mercury to methylmercury ... /which/ is ... taken up rapidly by plankton algae and is concentrated in fish by way of food chain. /Mercuric salts/
    [Hardman, J.G., L.E. Limbird, P.B. Molinoff, R.W. Ruddon, A.G. Goodman (eds.). Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 9th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1996.1655]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Inorganic mercury compounds can be methylated by microorganisms indegenous to soils, fresh water, and salt water(1). This process is mediated by various microbial populations under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Sulfur-reducing bacteria are responsible for most of the mercury methylation in the environment; however, yeast populations are also able to methylate mercury in the environment(1). Increased dissolved organic carbon levels reduce methylation of mercury compounds in aqueous systems most probably due to the binding affinity between the dissolved organic carbon and the mercury ions(1). At low pH, methylation of mercury compounds is favored while demethylation is inhibited.
    [(1) ATSDR; Toxicological Profile for Mercury p. 324, 327 Research Triangle Institute 205-93-0606 (1998)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Environmental Abiotic Degradation:

    Organic mercury develops in soil within 30 to 50 days. Dimethyl mercury migrates to surface of water bodies from bottom sediments and is photodegraded to methyl mercury. /Organic & dimethyl mercury/
    [Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Mercury (Draft) p.43 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Mercuric compounds found in the atmosphere are likely to be transformed by chemical or physical processes. Theoretical calculations on the photodissociation of mercuric compounds have indicated that mercuric chloride and mercuric cyanide are stable, while mercuric hydroxide may dissociate in the gas phase(1). Exchange reactions between water and mercury compounds are likely to occur in the atmosphere(1). The result of these exchange reactions eventually results in the release of elemental mercury into the gaseous phase.
    [(1) Lindqvist O, ed; Mercury in the Swedish Environment. Recent research on causes, consequences and corrective methods. Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 261 (1991)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Environmental Bioconcentration:

    As the tissue concn approaches steady-state, net accumulation rate is slowed either by a reduction in uptake rate, possibly due to inhibition of membrane transport, or by an increase in depuration rate, possibly because of a saturation of storage sites, or both.
    [USEPA; Ambient Water Quality Criteria Doc: Mercury p.10 (1984) EPA 440/5-84-026]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Bioconcentration Factors for Mercury: Marine Plants 1,000; Marine Invertebrates 100,000; Marine Fish 1,670; Freshwater Plants 1,000; Freshwater Invertebrates 100,000; Freshwater Fish 1,000.
    [Callahan, M.A., M.W. Slimak, N.W. Gabel, et al. Water-Related Environmental Fate of 129 Priority Pollutants. Volume I. EPA-440/4 79-029a. Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, December 1979.14-10]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Fish can accumulate mercury (Hg) to very high levels because accumulation is rapid and elimination is slow. Predators achieve higher concn than do fish lower in the food chain. In Canadian freshwaters, the highest Hg levels are found in lake trout, pike and walleye. In the sea, high Hg concn are found in sharks, swordfish, tuna, and halibut.
    [Nat'l Research Council Canada; Effects of Mercury in the Canadian Environment p.89 (1979) NRCC No. 16739]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Acidification of a body of water might also increase mercury residues in fish even if no new input of mercury occurs, possibly because lower pH increases ventilation rate and membrane permeability, accelerates the rates of methylation and uptake, affects partitioning between sediment and water, or reduces growth or reproduction of fish.
    [USEPA; Ambient Water Quality Criteria Doc: Mercury p.12 (1984) EPA 440/5-84-026]**PEER REVIEWED**

    ... Microorganisms convert inorg mercury to methylmercury ... /which/ is ... taken up rapidly by plankton algae and is concentrated in fish by way of food chain. /Mercuric salts/
    [Hardman, J.G., L.E. Limbird, P.B. Molinoff, R.W. Ruddon, A.G. Goodman (eds.). Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 9th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1996.1655]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Bioconcentration factors of 63,000 for fresh-water and 10,000 for salt-water fish. /Mercury Compounds/
    [Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Mercury (Draft) p.43 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Possible bioaccumulation problem. Many organisms can accumulate mercury from water. Bioconcentrative up to 10,000 fold. /Mercury/
    [U.S. Coast Guard, Department of Transportation. CHRIS - Hazardous Chemical Data. Volume II. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1984-5.]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Fish can accumulate mercury and transfer it to higher levels in the food chain.
    [U.S. Coast Guard, Department of Transportation. CHRIS - Hazardous Chemical Data. Volume II. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1984-5.]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Mercuric salts are still widely employed in industry, and industrial discharge ... into rivers has polluted many parts of the world. ... Microorganisms convert inorg mercury to methyl mercury ... /which/ is ... taken up rapidly by planktonic algae and is concentrated in fish by way of food chain. /Mercuric salts/
    [Hardman, J.G., L.E. Limbird, P.B. Molinoff, R.W. Ruddon, A.G. Goodman (eds.). Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 9th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1996.1654-9]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Accumulation of mercury in the terrestrial and aquatic food chains results in risks for man mainly through the consumption of: fish from contaminated waters; especially predator species, tuna fish, swordfish and other large oceanic fish even if caught considerably off shore; other seafoods including mussels and crayfish, fish-eating birds and mammals; and eggs of fish eating birds. /Mercury/
    [WHO; Environ Health Criteria: Mercury p.55 (1976)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Mercuric salts, are converted by bacteria to methylmercury which bioaccumulates(1). It has been proposed that methylmercury in fish arises from the bacterial methylation of inorganic mercury compounds, either in the environment or in bacteria associated with fish gills, surface, or gut(1). There is little indication that fish themselves methylate or demethylate mercury(1). The change from inorganic to methylated forms of mercury is the first crucial step in the aquatic bioaccumulation(2). Nearly all (95-100%) of the mercury present in fish is methylmercury(2). Any inorganic mercury compounds which are absorbed by fish are released back into the water rather quickly(1). Terrestrial animals that feed off of aquatic organisms, such as seagulls, generally have higher concns of mercury compounds than other terrestrial animals which do not(1).
    [(1) WHO; Mercury - Environmental Aspects - Geneva. NY, NY: World Health Organization. WHO Publications Center U.S.A. pp. 115 (1989) (2) Simon M et al; Ullmann's Encycl Indust Chem. 5th ed. Deerfield Beach, FL: VCH Publishers, A16: 269-298 (1990)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    In one study, the bioaccumulation of inorganic mercury was found to decrease as pH decreased. At pHs of 5, 6.5, and 7.5, fathead minnow accumulated whole body residues of 2.7, 1.8, and 0.4 mg Hg/kg, respectively, when exposed to mercuric chloride(1). Observations of aquatic organisms indicate that mercury concns increase with increasing age and that males tend to have higher levels than females(1).
    [(1) WHO; Mercury - Environmental Aspects - Geneva. NY, NY: World Health Organization. WHO Publications Center U.S.A. pp. 115 (1989)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Soil Adsorption/Mobility:

    In general, the availability of soil mercury (Hg) to plants is low and there is a root barrier to translocation of Hg to plant tops.
    [Steward JWB et al; Joint FAO/IAGA Meetings: Publ IAGA Vienna p.23-4 (1975) as cited in Nat'l Research Council Canada; Effects of Mercury in the Canadian Environment p.101 (1979) NRCC No. 16739]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Once mercury compounds are released in moist soil environments, they may dissociate depending upon their solubility. Upon dissolution, mercury will either be associated with its respective anion or be associated with humic matter(1). Studies indicate that mercury compounds, once deposited on soil, are absorbed to the soil and do not leach(2,3). Mercuric sulfide has been found to strongly adsorb to soil, and even with weathering, any mercury released from the mercuric sulfide is readsorbed by the soil(2). Mercuric sulfide has very limited water solubility and in the absence of other solvents, is likely to have limited mobility in soil(2). The general vertical distribution pattern of mercury in soil is closely related to the distribution of the organic matter since functional groups, especially sulfides, in organic components strongly bind mercury(1). In contrast to most other metals, acidification of soils does not increase the solubility of mercury compounds. The adsorption on humic matter seems instead to increase at lower pH values(1).
    [(1) Lindqvist O, ed; Mercury in the Swedish Environment. Recent Research on causes, consequences and corrective methods. Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Pub. pp. 261 (1991) (2) ATSDR; Toxicological Profile for Mercury p. 312, 319-320 Research Triangle Institute 205-93-0606 (1998) (3) Bodek I et al; Environmental Inorganic Chemistry, Properties, Processes, and Estimation Methods. SETAC Special Publications Series. NY, NY: Pergamon Press pp. 7.10-1 to 7.10-17 (1988)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Volatilization from Water/Soil:

    ... A large fraction of the spray residue was found in the soil 30-50 days after application; the rest of the Hg was lost by vaporization (either as the organic cmpd or after conversion to Hg metal) or by migration to lower soil horizons since water containing organic cmpd from decomposing vegetable matter can leach adsorbed Hg. /Phenylmercury spray/
    [Nat'l Research Council Canada; Effects of Mercury in the Canadian Environment p.101 (1979) NRCC No. 16739]**PEER REVIEWED**

    ... certain bacteria are capable of transforming mercuric ion to volatile elemental mercury. /Mercuric ion/
    [Callahan, M.A., M.W. Slimak, N.W. Gabel, et al. Water-Related Environmental Fate of 129 Priority Pollutants. Volume I. EPA-440/4 79-029a. Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, December 1979.14-9]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Volatilization of mercury compounds from water surfaces is not expected(1) based upon their Henry's Law constants(2). For example, the Henry's Law constants for mercuric hydroxide and bichloride are 7.82X10-8 and 7.09X10-10 atm-cu m/mole 25 deg C, respectively(2).
    [(1) Lyman WJ et al; Handbook of Chemical Property Estimation Methods. Washington, DC: Amer Chem Soc pp. 4-9, 15-1 to 15-29 (1990) (2) WHO; Methyl Mercury - Environmental Health Criteria 101. Geneva NY, NY: World Health Organization. WHO Publications Center pp. 144 (1990)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Environmental Water Concentrations:

    Drinking Water (range): 5 to 100 ng Hg/l (est) /Total mercury/
    [USEPA; Mercury Health Effects Update p.3-19 (1984) EPA 600/8-84-019F]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Surface Water: ... The purest surface water (drinking quality) contains less than 30 ng/l based on over 700 samples collected from drinking reservoirs in the Federal Republic of Germany. Rivers believed to have low contamination, such as the Danube, and bodies of water such as the Boden Sea, have values close to 150 ng/l based on the analysis of 152 samples. /Total mercury/
    [Bouquiaux J; Proceedings of the Intl Symposium on the Problems of Contamination of Man and His Environment by Mercury and Cadmium p.23 (1974) as cited in WHO; Environ Health Criteria: Mercury p.58 (1976)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Drinking Water: In the Federal Republic of Germany, the mercury concn measured was approx 600 ng/l in a sample of potable water. /Total mercury/
    [WHO; Environ Health Criteria: Mercury p.59 (1976)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Other Waters: In the Federal Republic of Germany, the mercury contamination was approx 400 ng/l in inland waters and between 100 and 1,800 ng/l in rivers. /Total mercury/
    [WHO; Environ Health Criteria: Mercury p.59 (1976)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    The amount of mercury in the oceans has been calculated as 70 million ton using a figure for total ocean volume of 1.37X10+9 cu km and taking the avg Hg content of ocean water as 50 ng/l. /Total mercury/
    [WHO; Environ Health Criteria: Mercury p.47 (1976)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Natural Waters: Rainwater, snow 0.01-0.48 ppb; Normal stream, river, and lake waters 0.01-0.1 ppb; Coal mine waters (Donets Basin, USSR) 1-10 ppb; Stream and river waters near mercury deposits 0.5-100 ppb; Oceans and seas 0.005-5.0 ppb; Hot springs and certain mineral waters 0.01-2.5 ppb; Normal groundwaters 0.01-0.10 ppb; Groundwaters and mine waters near polymetallic sulfide deposits 1-1000 ppb; Oil field and other saline waters 0.1-230 ppb. /Total mercury/
    [Jonasson IR, Boyle RW; Bull Can Inst Min Metal 65: 32-9 (1972) as cited in Nat'l Research Council Canada; Effects of Mercury in the Canadian Environment p.40 (1979) NRCC No. 16739]**PEER REVIEWED**

    In a contaminated lake system in Canada, inorganic mercury compounds were found to constitute a varying proportion of total mercury, depending on the lake that was being tested, but, overall accounted for approximately 94-99% of the total mercury(1). In seawater, mercury tetrachloride is the dominant mercury salt detected(2). Measurement of mercury in aquatic systems have given the following concn ranges: open ocean 0.5-3 ng/l; coastal sea water 2-15 ng/l; rivers and lakes 1-3 ng/l(2). /Total mercury/
    [(1) WHO; Methyl Mercury - Environmental Health Criteria 101. Geneva NY, NY: World Health Organization. WHO Publications Center pp. 144 (1990) (2) WHO; Mercury - Environmental Aspects - Geneva. NY, NY: World Health Organization. WHO Publications Center U.S.A. pp. 115 (1989)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Effluent Concentrations:

    Mercury is concentrated in the sludges from sewage treatment by a factor of several hundred to several thousand over the levels initially present in the raw sewage. /Total mercury/
    [Nat'l Research Council Canada; Effects of Mercury in the Canadian Environment p.73 (1979) NRCC No. 16739]**PEER REVIEWED**

    ... A plant in northwestern Ontario is est to have discharged 9 tons of mercury into local waters, with effects traceable 200 miles downstream. /Total mercury/
    [Nat'l Research Council Canada; Effects of Mercury in the Canadian Environment p.84 (1979) NRCC No. 16739]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Sediment/Soil Concentrations:

    Soil and Glacial Deposits: Normal soils 20-150 ppb; Normal tills, glacial clay, sand, etc 20-100 ppb; Soils, tills, etc near mercury deposits, sulfide deposits, etc up to 250 ppm; Soil horizons (normal)- A (humic) 60-200 ppb, B 30-140 ppb, C 25-150 ppb; Soil horizons (near mercury deposits)- A (humic) 200-1860 ppb, B 140-605 ppb, C 150-554 ppb. /Total mercury/
    [Jonasson IR, Boyle RW; Bull Can Inst Min Metal 65: 32-9 (1972) as cited in Nat'l Research Council Canada; Effects of Mercury in the Canadian Environment p.39 (1979) NRCC No. 16739]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Approximate concn of all forms of Hg in the earth's crust is 80 ppb. /MERCURY/
    [Jonasson IR; Mercury in the Natural Environment: A Review of Recent Work: Geological Survey of Canada p.13-14 (1970)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    The mercury content in minerals forming ordinary rock and soils is usually very low. The normal level in igneous rocks and minerals seems to be less than 50 ug/kg, and in many cases is less than 10 ug/kg(1). Average concns in ocean sediments probably range between 20 and 100 ug/kg(1). Parent material of mineral soils generally have mercury concns ranging from 2 to 8 ug/kg for normal rock forming minerals(2).
    [(1) WHO; Mercury - Environmental Aspects - Geneva. NY, NY: World Health Organization. WHO Publications Center U.S.A. pp. 115 (1989) (2) Lindqvist O, ed; Mercury in the Swedish Environment. Recent Research on causes, consequences and corrective methods. Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Pub. pp. 261 (1991)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Atmospheric Concentrations:

    Atmospheric Concn (avg): 2-10 ng Hg/cu m (est) /Total mercury/
    [USEPA; Mercury Health Effects Update p.2-4 (1984) EPA 600/8-84-019F]**PEER REVIEWED**

    The avg concn of mercury (Hg) in the general atmosphere in the USSR was 10 ng/cu m; 0-14 ng/cu m in non-industrialized regions of Japan; the lowest concn in Denver, USA was 2-5 ng/cu m; in San Francisco, USA, levels of 0.5-50 ng/cu m (depending greatly on the direction of the wind) were reported; airborne dust in New York City contained from 1 to 41 ng/cu m and outdoors concn ranged from 0 to 14 ng/cu m; and particle-bound Hg in air above Chicago ranged from 3 to 39 ng/cu m. /Total mercury/
    [WHO; Environ Health Criteria: Mercury p.57 (1976)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Volcanic exhalations: Atmosphere 2-10 ng/cu m; Air over mercury deposits 30-1600 ng/cu m. /Total mercury/
    [Jonasson IR, Boyle RW; Bull Can Inst Min Metal 65: 32-9 (1972) as cited in Nat'l Research Council Canada; Effects of Mercury in the Canadian Environment p.39 (1979) NRCC No. 16739]**PEER REVIEWED**

    In the atmosphere, particulate bound mercury constitutes only approximately 2% of total mercury in the air and has normally been found to be less than 0.1 ng/cu m in regions unaffected by local sources(1). Some other mercury compounds which may exist in the atmosphere are mercuric chloride, mercuric bromide, mercuric hydroxide, mercuric sulfide, and mercuric cyanide(1). The rest is elemental mercury in the gaseous phase. In remote areas over the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, mercury bound to particulate matter concns are generally at or below the picogram per cubic meter level(1).
    [(1) Lindqvist O, ed; Mercury in the Swedish Environment. Recent Research on causes, consequences and corrective methods. Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Pub. pp. 261 (1991)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Food Survey Values:

    Levels in eggs (440 samples) taken from Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany and the United Kingdom, ranged from 0 to 100 ug/kg with most of the values between 10 and 20 ug/kg. Levels in meat, meat products, and prepared meat products (318 samples from the United Kingdom) ranged from 0 to 50 ug/kg with most values lying between 10 and 20 ug/kg. Various kinds of cereal and flour (2,133 samples, taken from the Federal Republic of Germany and the United Kingdom) ranged from 0 to 20 ug/kg with most values being close to 3 ug/kg. Mercury levels in cereal products from the same countries (52 samples) ranged up to 50 ug/kg with most values close to 20 ug/kg. Vegetables and fruits (288 samples) from Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, and the United Kingdom had mercury levels up to 50 ug/kg with most values close to 7 ug/kg. /Total mercury/
    [Bouquiaux J; Proceedings of the Intl Symposium on the Problems of Contamination of Man and His Environment by Mercury and Cadmium p.23 (1974) as cited in WHO; Environ Health Criteria: Mercury p.59 (1976)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Tuna, 0.2 mg/kg (natural), 10.6 mg/kg (abnormal); eggs, 0.009 mg/kg (natural), 0.029 mg/kg (abnormal); cabbage, 0.09 mg/kg (natural), 0.57 mg/kg (abnormal). /Mercury Compounds/
    [OECD; Mercury and the Environment p.135-141 (1974)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Mean level of Hg in most foodstuffs estimated at 0.03 mg/kg. /Mercury cmpd/
    [Casarett, L.J., and J. Doull. Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons. New York: MacMillan Publishing Co., 1975.484]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Concns of mercury compounds in most foodstuffs are often below the reported limit of detection. Besides fish products that often have detectable amounts of methylmercury, most other foodstuffs have average values below 20 ug/kg with mercury mainly in the inorganic form(1).
    [(1) WHO; Methyl Mercury - Environmental Health Criteria 101. Geneva. NY, NY: World Health Organization. WHO Publications Center pp. 144 (1990)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    In a FDA Adult Total Diet Study of 20 market basket composites conducted from Oct 1977-Sept 1978, the average mercury concentration in dairy was 0.0001 ppm (1 pos); in meat, fish, and poultry 0.0091 ppm (16 pos); in grain and cereal products 0.0014 ppm (5 pos); was not detected in potatoes (detection limit of 0.001 ppm); in leafy vegetables at 0.0006 ppm (3 pos); in legumes vegetables at 0.0011 ppm (3 pos); in root vegetables at 0.0007 ppm (3 pos); in garden fruit 0.0001 ppm (1 pos); in fruits at 0.0002 ppm (2 pos); in oils, fats, and shortenings at 0.0014 ppm (5 pos); in sugar and adjuncts at 0.0001 ppm (1 pos); and was not detected in beverages (detection limit of 0.001 ppm)(1).
    [(1) Podrebarac DS; J Assoc Off Anal Chem 67: 176-85 (1984)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    In a total market basket study conducted in the United States from 1991 to 1999, mercury was detected in 42 of 1206 food items at a mean concentration of 0.006 mg/kg and at a maximum concentration of 0.322 in tuna(1).
    [(1) FDA; U.S. Total Diet Study 91-3 to 99-1 Database on Mercury. Available from the Database Query page at http://vm.cfsan.fda.gov/~acrobat/TDS1byel.pdf as of Oct, 2000.l]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Plant Concentrations:

    Living organisms: Marine plants 0.01-37 ppb fresh wt; terrestrial plants 0-40 ppb fresh wt; Terrestrial plants in vicinity of mercury deposits 200-30,000 ppb fresh wt. /Total mercury/
    [Jonasson IR, Boyle RW; Bull Can Inst Min Metal 65: 32-9 (1972) as cited in Nat'l Research Council Canada; Effects of Mercury in the Canadian Environment p.39 (1979) NRCC No. 16739]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Mercury and its compounds occur naturally in trace amounts in plants growing in soils with low mercury concentrations (<500 ppb). /Mercury cmpd/
    [OECD; Mercury and the Environment p.135-147 (1974)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Most plant species are highly resistant to the effects of Hg and do not appreciably accumulate it. /Mercury/
    [Britt DL, Hushon JM; Biological Effects, Criteria and Standards for Hazardous Pollutants Associated with Energy Technologies p. 6-38 (1976) ERDA E (49-1)-3878]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Increasing the mercury (Hg) level in soil by addition of ... inorganic mercurials can lead to increases in the Hg content of plants. For example, ... the addition of mercuric acetate ... to Canadian prairie soil increased the Hg content of alfalfa 3-10 times over a control level of 0.07 ppm (dry weight basis). /Inorganic mercurials/
    [Nat'l Research Council Canada; Effects of Mercury in the Canadian Environment p.104 (1979) NRCC No. 16739]**PEER REVIEWED**

    The accumulation of mercury in plants increases with increasing soil mercury concn. Soil type has a considerable influence on this process with a high organic matter content decreasing the uptake(1). Generally, the highest concns of mercury are found at the roots, but translocation to other organs (e.g. leaves) occurs(1). In contrast to higher plants, mosses take up mercury via the atmosphere(1). In one study, 8 types of food were grown on soil amended with 4 or 20 mg/kg of mercuric chloride and later analyzed for uptake(1). Higher concns were found in the roots compared to the above-ground samples. At the highest treatment level, the mercury content of the roots ranged from 0.387 mg/kg for lettuce to 2.447 mg/kg for cauliflower(1). Spinach and radish tubers contained the highest concns of mercury(0.695 and 0.663 mg/kg respectively) in their edible portions.
    [(1) WHO; Mercury - Environmental Aspects - Geneva. NY, NY: World Health Organization. WHO Publications Center U.S.A. pp. 115 (1989)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Fish/Seafood Concentrations:

    Fish Concn (avg): 100-200 ng Hg/g fish (est) /Total mercury/
    [USEPA; Mercury Health Effects Update p.2-4 (1984) EPA 600/8-84-019F]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Fish and shellfish /concn/ in the United States: Tuna (mainly canned) 0.24 ppm; Unclassified (mainly breaded, including fish sticks) 0.21 ppm; Shrimp 0.46 ppm; Flounder 0.10 ppm; Clams 0.05 ppm; Crabs/lobsters 0.25 ppm; Salmon 0.05 ppm; Oysters/scallops 0.04 ppm; Trout 0.42 ppm; Bass 0.21 ppm; Catfish 0.15 ppm; Sardines 0.06 ppm; Pike 0.61 ppm; Snapper 0.45 ppm; Whiting 0.05 ppm; All other classified 0.21 ppm. /Total mercury/
    [USEPA; Mercury Health Effects Update p.3-16 (1984) EPA 600/8-84-019F]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Mercury content in muscle tissue of British Columbia fish: Crabs (Squamish) 1.55-13.4 ppm; Crabs (Fraser Rvier Flats) 0.19 ppm; Crabs (West Vancouver) 0.14 ppm; Crabs (Tofino) 0.02 ppm; Dolly Varden (Carpenter Lake) 0.41-1.94 ppm; Dogfish (English Bay) 1.08 ppm; Flounder (Squamish) 1.00-1.42 ppm; Flounder (Fraser River Flats) 0.23 ppm; Flounder (Hecate Strait) 0.11 ppm; Herring (Squamish) 0.14-0.30 ppm; Herring (Prince Rupert) 0.07 ppm; Lake trout (Pinchi Lake) 2.86 ppm; Rainbow trout (Tezzeron Lake) 0.04 ppm. /Total mercury/
    [Bligh EG, Armstrong FAJ; Int Council Explor Sea Rep No. CM 1971/E34 p.13 (1971) as cited in Nat'l Research Council Canada; Effects of Mercury in the Canadian Environment p.90 (1979) NRCC No. 16739]**PEER REVIEWED**

    1983-84, clams collected from the Pungo River in North Carolina, total mercury content 25-32 ng/g wet wt(1).
    [(1) DiGiulio RT, Ryan EA; Water Air Soil Poll 33: 205-19 (1987)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Animal Concentrations:

    Living organisms: Marine animals; molluscs, fish, seals, etc 0.1-200 ppb; Terrestrial (freshwater) animals; fish, crayfish, etc 0.1-200 ppb; Terrestrial (land) animals; man, birds, etc 1-100 ppb. /Total mercury/
    [Jonasson IR, Boyle RW; Bull Can Inst Min Metal 65: 32-9 (1972) as cited in Nat'l Research Council Canada; Effects of Mercury in the Canadian Environment p.39 (1979) NRCC No. 16739]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Milk Concentrations:

    Mercury levels in milk products (81 samples from the Federal Republic of Germany and the United Kingdom) ranged from 0 to 40 ug/kg with a medium value of 6 ug/kg. /Total mercury/
    [Bouquioux J; Proceedings of the Intl Symposium on the Problems of Contamination of Man and His Environment by Mercury and Cadmium p.23 (1974) as cited in WHO; Environ Health Criteria: Mercury p.59 (1976)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Other Environmental Concentrations:

    Volcanic Condensates and Precipitates: Fumarolic condensates 0.3-6 ppb; Sulfuric and hydrochloric acids 0.2-72 ppb; Chloride, sulfate, flouride and sulfur precipitates 1-14,000 ppb; Hydrous iron oxide precipitates up to 0.1%; Opaline silica sinters, etc at hot spring orifices up to 0.2%. /Total mercury/
    [Jonasson IR, Boyle RW; Bull Can Inst Min Metal 65: 32-9 (1972) as cited in Nat'l Research Council Canada; Effects of Mercury in the Canadian Environment p.39 (1979) NRCC No. 16739]**PEER REVIEWED**

    50 ppm of mercury in soil impairs growth of plants. Soils with more than 1,000 ppm must be considered toxic. /Total mercury/
    [Manual on Hazardous Substances in Special Wastes, Federal Environmental Agency Waste Management Division (1976) as cited in Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Mercury (Draft) p.43 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Environmental Standards & Regulations:

    RCRA Requirements:

    D009; A solid waste containing mercury may or may not become characterized as a hazardous waste when subjected to the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure listed in 40 CFR 261.24, and if so characterized, must be managed as a hazardous waste. /Mercury/
    [40 CFR 261.24 (7/1/99]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Atmospheric Standards:

    Emissions to the atmosphere from mercury ore processing facilities and mercury cell chlor-alkali plants shall not exceed 2300 grams of mercury per 24-hour period. /Mercury/
    [40 CFR 61.52(a) (7/1/99)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Emissions to the atmosphere from sludge incineration plants, sludge drying plants, or a combination of these that process wastewater treatment plant sludges shall not exceed 3200 grams of mercury per 24-hour period. /Mercury/
    [40 CFR 61.52(b) (7/1/99)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Clean Water Act Requirements:

    Toxic pollutant designated pursuant to section 307(a)(1) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act and is subject to effluent limitations. /Mercury and cmpd/
    [40 CFR 401.15 (7/1/99)]**QC REVIEWED**

    Federal Drinking Water Standards:

    EPA 2 ug/l /Mercury/
    [USEPA/Office of Water; Federal-State Toxicology and Risk Analysis Committee (FSTRAC). Summary of State and Federal Drinking Water Standards and Guidelines (11/93)]**QC REVIEWED**

    Federal Drinking Water Guidelines:

    EPA 2 ug/l /Mercury/
    [USEPA/Office of Water; Federal-State Toxicology and Risk Analysis Committee (FSTRAC). Summary of State and Federal Drinking Water Standards and Guidelines (11/93)]**QC REVIEWED**

    State Drinking Water Guidelines:

    (AZ) ARIZONA 3 ug/l /Mercury/
    [USEPA/Office of Water; Federal-State Toxicology and Risk Analysis Committee (FSTRAC). Summary of State and Federal Drinking Water Standards and Guidelines (11/93)]**QC REVIEWED**

    (ME) MAINE 2 ug/l /Mercury/
    [USEPA/Office of Water; Federal-State Toxicology and Risk Analysis Committee (FSTRAC). Summary of State and Federal Drinking Water Standards and Guidelines (11/93)]**QC REVIEWED**

    Chemical/Physical Properties:

    Other Chemical/Physical Properties:

    Mercury salts, when heated with Na2CO3, yield metallic Hg and are reduced to metal by H2O2 in the presence of alkali hydroxide. Cu, Fe, Zn and many other metals precipitate metallic Hg from neutral or slightly acid soln of mercury salts. /Mercury salts/
    [Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996.1006]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Soluble ionized mercuric salts give a yellow precipitate of HgO with NaOH and a red precipitate of HgI2 with alkali iodide. /Soluble mercuric salts/
    [Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996.1006]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Mercurous salts give a black precipitate with alkali hydroxides and a white precipitate of calomel with HCl or soluble chlorides. /Mercurous salts/
    [Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996.1006]**PEER REVIEWED**

    METHYL- & ETHYLMERCURY CHLORIDE HAVE A HIGH SOLUBILITY IN SOLVENTS & LIPIDS; SHORT-CHAIN ALKYLMERCURIC COMPOUNDS FORM SALTS WITH HALOGENS, WHICH ARE HIGHLY VOLATILE AT ROOM TEMP; SATURATION CONCN OF METHYLMERCURY CHLORIDE AT 20 DEG C IS 90000 MG MERCURY/CU M; OTHER SALTS, SUCH AS HYDROXIDE & NITRATE OF METHYLMERCURY ARE LESS VOLATILE /METHYLMERCURY COMPOUNDS/
    [Friberg, L., G.R. Nordberg, and V.B. Vouk. Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals. New York: Elsevier North Holland, 1979.505]**PEER REVIEWED**

    METHYLMERCURY(II) COMPLEXES OF MOST WIDELY STUDIED ANTIDOTES FOR MERCURY POISONING WERE PREPARED, & THE WATER SOLUBILITY & 1-OCTANOL/WATER PARTITION COEFFICIENTS DETERMINED FOR THESE COMPLEXES & THE L-CYSTEINE COMPLEX.
    [ARNOLD AP ET AL; J INORG BIOCHEM 19 (4): 319-28 (1983)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Methoxyethylmercury radicals /have been described/ as resembling sodium ion in that they are strongly alkaline and form highly ionized salts that are generally water soluble and appreciably volatile. These compounds are quantitatively decomposed by strong acids. /Methoxyethylmercury radicals/
    [White-Stevens, R. (ed.). Pesticides in the Environment: Volume 1, Part 1, Part 2. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc., 1971.19]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Chemical Safety & Handling:

    DOT Emergency Guidelines:

    Health: Inhalation of vapors or contact with substance will result in contamination and potential harmful effects. Fire will produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. /Mercury; Mercury, metallic/
    [U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-172]**QC REVIEWED**

    Fire or explosion: Non-combustible, substance itself does not burn but may react upon heating to produce corrosive and/or toxic fumes. Runoff may pollute waterways. /Mercury; Mercury, metallic/
    [U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-172]**QC REVIEWED**

    Public safety: CALL Emergency Response Telephone Number. ... Isolate spill or leak area immediately for at least 10 to 25 meters (30 to 80 feet) in all directions. Stay upwind. Keep unauthorized personnel away. /Mercury; Mercury, metallic/
    [U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-172]**QC REVIEWED**

    Protective clothing: Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Structural firefighters' protective clothing will only provide limited protection. /Mercury; Mercury, metallic/
    [U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-172]**QC REVIEWED**

    Evacuation: ... Fire: When any large container is involved in a fire, consider initial evacuation for 500 meters (1/3 mile) in all directions. /Mercury; Mercury, metallic/
    [U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-172]**QC REVIEWED**

    Fire: Use extinguishing agent suitable for type of surrounding fire. Do not direct water at the heated metal. /Mercury; Mercury, metallic/
    [U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-172]**QC REVIEWED**

    Spill or leak: Do not touch or walk through spilled material. Do not touch damaged containers or spilled material unless wearing appropriate protective clothing. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. Prevent entry into waterways, sewers, basements or confined areas. Do not use steel or aluminum tools or equipment. Cover with earth, sand, or other non-combustible material followed with plastic sheet to minimize spreading or contact with rain. For mercury, use a mercury spill kit. Mercury spill areas may be subsequently treated with calcium sulphide/calcium sulfide or with sodium thiosulphate/sodium thiosulfate wash to neutralize any residual mercury. /Mercury; Mercury, metallic/
    [U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-172]**QC REVIEWED**

    First aid: Move victim to fresh air. Call 911 or emergency medical service. Apply artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes. In case of contact with substance, immediately flush skin or eyes with running water for at least 20 minutes. Keep victim warm and quiet. Ensure that medical personnel are aware of the material(s) involved, and take precautions to protect themselves.
    [U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-172]**QC REVIEWED**

    Health: Highly toxic, may be fatal if inhaled, swallowed or absorbed through skin. Avoid any skin contact. Effects of contact or inhalation may be delayed. Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may be corrosive and/or toxic and cause pollution. /Mercury cmpd, liquid or solid , nos/
    [U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-151]**QC REVIEWED**

    Fire or explosion: Non-combustible, substance itself does not burn but may decompose upon heating to produce corrosive and/or toxic fumes. Containers may explode when heated. Runoff may pollute waterways. /Mercury cmpd, liquid or solid , nos/
    [U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-151]**QC REVIEWED**

    Public safety: CALL Emergency Response Telephone Number. ... Isolate spill or leak area immediately for at least 25 to 50 meters (80 to 160 feet) in all directions. Keep unauthorized personnel away. Stay upwind. Keep out of low areas. /Mercury cmpd, liquid or solid , nos/
    [U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-151]**QC REVIEWED**

    Protective clothing: Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Wear chemical protective clothing which is specifically recommended by the manufacturer. It may provide little or no thermal protection. Structural firefighters' protective clothing provides limited protection in fire situations ONLY; it is not effective in spill situations. /Mercury cmpd, liquid or solid , nos/
    [U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-151]**QC REVIEWED**

    Evacuation: ... Fire: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions. /Mercury cmpd, liquid or solid , nos/
    [U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-151]**QC REVIEWED**

    Fire: Small fires: Dry chemical, CO2 or water spray. Large fires: Water spray, fog or regular foam. Move containers from fire area if you can do it without risk. Dike fire control water for later disposal; do not scatter the material. Use water spray or fog; do not use straight streams. Fire involving tanks or car/trailer loads: Fight fire from maximum distance or use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. Do not get water inside containers. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety devices or discoloration of tank. ALWAYS stay away from tanks engulfed in fire. For massive fire, use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles; if this is impossible withdraw from area and let fire burn. /Mercury cmpd, liquid or solid , nos/
    [U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-151]**QC REVIEWED**

    Spill or leak: Do not touch damaged containers or spilled material unless wearing appropriate protective clothing. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. Prevent entry into waterways, sewers, basements or confined areas. Cover with plastic sheet to prevent spreading. Absorb or cover with dry earth, sand or other non-combustible material and transfer to containers. DO NOT GET WATER INSIDE CONTAINERS. /Mercury cmpd, liquid or solid , nos/
    [U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-151]**QC REVIEWED**

    First aid: Move victim to fresh air. Call 911 or emergency medical service. Apply artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Do not use mouth-to-mouth method if victim ingested or inhaled the substance; induce artificial respiration with the aid of a pocket mask equipped with a one-way valve or other proper respiratory medical device. Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes. In case of contact with substance, immediately flush skin or eyes with running water for at least 20 minutes. For minor skin contact, avoid spreading material on unaffected skin. Keep victim warm and quiet. Effects of exposure (inhalation, ingestion or skin contact) to substance may be delayed. Ensure that medical personnel are aware of the material(s) involved, and take precautions to protect themselves. /Mercury cmpd, liquid or solid , nos/
    [U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-151]**QC REVIEWED**

    Health: Highly toxic, may be fatal if inhaled, swallowed or absorbed through skin. Avoid any skin contact. Effects of contact or inhalation may be delayed. Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may be corrosive and/or toxic and cause pollution. /Phenylmercuric compound, NOS/
    [U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-151]**QC REVIEWED**

    Fire or explosion: Non-combustible, substance itself does not burn but may decompose upon heating to produce corrosive and/or toxic fumes. Containers may explode when heated. Runoff may pollute waterways. /Phenylmercuric compound, NOS/
    [U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-151]**QC REVIEWED**

    Public safety: CALL Emergency Response Telephone Number. ... Isolate spill or leak area immediately for at least 25 to 50 meters (80 to 160 feet) in all directions. Keep unauthorized personnel away. Stay upwind. Keep out of low areas. /Phenylmercuric compound, NOS/
    [U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-151]**QC REVIEWED**

    Protective clothing: Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Wear chemical protective clothing which is specifically recommended by the manufacturer. It may provide little or no thermal protection. Structural firefighters' protective clothing provides limited protection in fire situations ONLY; it is not effective in spill situations. /Phenylmercuric compound, NOS/
    [U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-151]**QC REVIEWED**

    Evacuation: ... Fire: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions. /Phenylmercuric compound, NOS/
    [U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-151]**QC REVIEWED**

    Fire: Small fires: Dry chemical, CO2 or water spray. Large fires: Water spray, fog or regular foam. Move containers from fire area if you can do it without risk. Dike fire control water for later disposal; do not scatter the material. Use water spray or fog; do not use straight streams. Fire involving tanks or car/trailer loads: Fight fire from maximum distance or use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. Do not get water inside containers. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety devices or discoloration of tank. ALWAYS stay away from tanks engulfed in fire. For massive fire, use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles; if this is impossible withdraw from area and let fire burn. /Phenylmercuric compound, NOS/
    [U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-151]**QC REVIEWED**

    Spill or leak: Do not touch damaged containers or spilled material unless wearing appropriate protective clothing. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. Prevent entry into waterways, sewers, basements or confined areas. Cover with plastic sheet to prevent spreading. Absorb or cover with dry earth, sand or other non-combustible material and transfer to containers. DO NOT GET WATER INSIDE CONTAINERS. /Phenylmercuric compound, NOS/
    [U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-151]**QC REVIEWED**

    First aid: Move victim to fresh air. Call 911 or emergency medical service. Apply artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Do not use mouth-to-mouth method if victim ingested or inhaled the substance; induce artificial respiration with the aid of a pocket mask equipped with a one-way valve or other proper respiratory medical device. Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes. In case of contact with substance, immediately flush skin or eyes with running water for at least 20 minutes. For minor skin contact, avoid spreading material on unaffected skin. Keep victim warm and quiet. Effects of exposure (inhalation, ingestion or skin contact) to substance may be delayed. Ensure that medical personnel are aware of the material(s) involved, and take precautions to protect themselves. /Phenylmercuric compound, NOS/
    [U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-151]**QC REVIEWED**

    Odor Threshold:

    The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) states that alkyl mercury compounds "are disagreeable in odor." /Organo (alkyl) mercury/
    [Mackison, F. W., R. S. Stricoff, and L. J. Partridge, Jr. (eds.). NIOSH/OSHA - Occupational Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards. DHHS(NIOSH) Publication No. 81-123 (3 VOLS). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, Jan. 1981.3]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Skin, Eye and Respiratory Irritations:

    MANY MERCURY CMPD ARE IRRITATING TO SKIN & MAY PRODUCE DERMATITIS WITH OR WITHOUT VESICATION. ... CONTACT WITH EYES CAUSES ULCERATION OF CONJUNCTIVA & CORNEA.
    [Gosselin, R.E., R.P. Smith, H.C. Hodge. Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products. 5th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1984.III-263]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Alkyl mercury compounds are primary skin irritants and may cause dermatitis. /Methyl mercury compounds/
    [Sittig M; Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals p.421 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    THE ALKYLMERCURY COMPOUNDS ARE STRONG IRRITANTS OF THE SKIN & MAY CAUSE BLISTERS OR OTHER DERMATITIS WITH OR WITHOUT ASSOC SYSTEMIC ILLNESS. /ALKYLMERCURY COMPOUNDS/
    [Hayes, Wayland J., Jr. Pesticides Studied in Man. Baltimore/London: Williams and Wilkins, 1982.22]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Exposure of the skin to a concentrated solution of phenylmercury cmpd may cause chemical burns with blistering. /Aryl mercury cmpd/
    [International Labour Office. Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety. Vols. I&II. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Office, 1983.1336]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Soluble salts have violent corrosive effects on skin and mucous membranes. /Mercury/
    [Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996.1006]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Irritation levels: The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) states that "the organomercurials are severe skin, eye & mucous membrane irritants. /Organo (alkyl) mercury/
    [Mackison, F. W., R. S. Stricoff, and L. J. Partridge, Jr. (eds.). NIOSH/OSHA - Occupational Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards. DHHS(NIOSH) Publication No. 81-123 (3 VOLS). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, Jan. 1981.3]**PEER REVIEWED**

    PROLONGED ABSORPTION OF IODIDES MAY PRODUCE IODISM WHICH IS MANIFESTED BY SKIN RASH, RUNNING NOSE, HEADACHE, AND IRRITATION OF MUCOUS MEMBRANES. /IODIDES/
    [Sax, N.I. Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 6th ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1984.1616]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Fire Fighting Procedures:

    If material involved in fire: Extinguish fire using agent suitable for type of surrounding fire. (Material itself does not burn or burns with difficulty.) Use water in flooding quantities as fog. Use foam, dry chemical, or carbon dioxide. /Mercury compound, solid, NOS/
    [Association of American Railroads. Emergency Handling of Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation. Washington, DC: Association of American Railroads, Bureau of Explosives, 1994.678]**PEER REVIEWED**

    If material on fire or involved in fire: Use water in flooding quantities as fog. Use "alcohol" foam, dry chemical or carbon dioxide. Apply water from as far a distance as possible. Keep run-off out of sewers and water sources. /Mercury compounds, liquid, NOS/
    [Association of American Railroads. Emergency Handling of Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation. Washington, DC: Association of American Railroads, Bureau of Explosives, 1994.678]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Hazardous Reactivities & Incompatibilities:

    Aluminum foil is unsuitable as a packing material in contact with mercury(II)salts in presence of moisture, when vigorous amalgamation ensues. /Mercuric salts/
    [Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 199027]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Incompatibilities: Strong oxidizers such as chlorine. /Methyl mercury compounds/
    [Sittig M; Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals p.421 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Hazardous Decomposition:

    Phenylmercury salts & methoxyalkylmercury cmpd decompose readily & release mercury vapor /Phenyl mercury salts/
    [Friberg, L., Nordberg, G.F., Kessler, E. and Vouk, V.B. (eds). Handbook of the Toxicology of Metals. 2nd ed. Vols I, II.: Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., 1986.V2 390]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health:

    2 mg/cu m (as Hg) /Mercury (organo) alkyl compounds (as Hg)/
    [NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997.192]**PEER REVIEWED**

    10 mg/cu m (as Hg) /Mercury cmpd (except (organo) alkyl compounds (as Hg)/
    [NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997.192]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Protective Equipment & Clothing:

    /SRP: IN THE LABORATORY:/ USE SKIN & RESP PROTECTION WHEN DRY MERCURIC SALTS ARE TO BE USED. USE SKIN PROTECTION WHEN CONCN AQUEOUS SOLN OF MERCURIC SALTS ARE USED. /MERCURIC SALTS/
    [Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official Methods of Analysis. 10th ed. and supplements. Washington, DC: Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 1965. New editions through 13th ed. plus supplements, 1982.13/883 51.079]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Protective equipment: Wear appropriate clothing to prevent any possibility of skin contact. Wear eye protection to prevent any possibility of eye contact. Employees should wash immediately when skin is wet or contaminated. Work clothing should be changed daily if it is possible that clothing is contaminated. Remove non-impervious clothing immediately if wet or contaminated. Provide emergency showers and eyewash. /Methyl mercury compounds/
    [Sittig M; Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals p.422 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    ... use disposable uniforms, so that a contaminated uniform is not a source of absorption through the skin: use disposable mercury-vapor-absorbing masks ...
    [Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 3rd ed., Volumes 1-26. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, 1978-1984.15(81) 167]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Wear appropriate personal protective clothing to prevent skin contact. /Mercury (organo) alkyl compounds (as Hg)/
    [NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997.193]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Wear appropriate eye protection to prevent eye contact. /Mercury (organo) alkyl compounds (as Hg)/
    [NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997.193]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Eyewash fountains should be provided in areas where there is any possibility that workers could be exposed to the substance; this is irrespective of the recommendation involving the wearing of eye protection. /Mercury (organo) alkyl compounds (as Hg)/
    [NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997.193]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Facilities for quickly drenching the body should be provided within the immediate work area for emergency use where there is a possibility of exposure. (Note: It is intended that these facilities provide a sufficient quantity or flow of water to quickly remove the substance from any body areas likely to be exposed. The actual determination of what constitutes an adequate quick drench facility depends on the specific circumstances. In certain instances, a deluge shower should be readily available, whereas in others, the availability of water from a sink or hose could be considered adequate.) /Mercury (organo) alkyl compounds (as Hg)/
    [NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997.193]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Recommendations for respirator selection. Max. concn for use: 0.1 mg/cu m. Respirator Class(es): Any supplied-air respirator. /Mercury (organo) alkyl compounds (as Hg)/
    [NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997.193]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Recommendations for respirator selection. Max. concn for use: 2.5 mg/cu m. Respirator Class(es): Any chemical cartridge respirator with a full facepiece and cartridge(s) providing protection against the compound of concern. End of service life indicator (ESLI) required. Any air-purifying, full-facepiece respirator (gas mask) with a chin-style, front- or back-mounted canister providing protection against the compound of concern. End of service life indicator (ESLI) required. Any supplied-air respirator that has a tight-fitting facepiece and is operated in a continuous-flow mode. Any powered, air-purifying respirator with a tight-fitting facepiece and cartridge(s) providing protection against the compound of concern. End of service life indicator (ESLI) required. (Canister) Any self-contained breathing apparatus with a full facepiece. Any supplied-air respirator with a full facepiece. /Mercury [except (organo) alkyls] (as Hg), mercury vapor/
    [NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997.193]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Recommendations for respirator selection. Max. concn for use: 10 mg/cu m. Respirator Class(es): Any supplied-air respirator operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode. /Mercury [except (organo) alkyls] (as Hg), mercury vapor/
    [NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997.193]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Recommendations for respirator selection. Condition: Emergency or planned entry into unknown concentrations or IDLH conditions: Respirator Class(es): Any self-contained breathing apparatus that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive pressure-mode. Any supplied-air respirator that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode in combination with an auxiliary self-contained breathing apparatus operated in pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode. /Mercury [except (organo) alkyls] (as Hg), mercury vapor/
    [NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997.193]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Recommendations for respirator selection. Condition: Escape from suddenly occurring respiratory hazards: Respirator Class(es): Any air-purifying, full-facepiece respirator (gas mask) with a chin-style, front- or back-mounted canister providing protection against the compound of concern. End of service life indicator (ESLI) required. Any appropriate escape-type, self-contained breathing apparatus. /Mercury [except (organo) alkyls] (as Hg), mercury vapor/
    [NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997.193]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Recommendations for respirator selection. Max. concn for use: 1 mg/cu m. Respirator Class(es): Any chemical cartridge respirator with cartridge(s) providing protection against the compound of concern. End of service life indicator (ESLI) required. Any supplied-air respirator. /Mercury [except (organo) alkyls] (as Hg), other non (organo) alkyl mercury compounds/
    [NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997.193]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Recommendations for respirator selection. Max. concn for use: 2.5 mg/cu m. Respirator Class(es): Any supplied-air respirator operated in a continuous-flow mode. Any powered, air-purifying respirator with cartridge(s) providing protection against the compound of concern. End of service life indicator (ESLI) required. (Canister) /Mercury [except (organo) alkyls] (as Hg), other non (organo) alkyl mercury compounds/
    [NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997.193]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Recommendations for respirator selection. Max. concn for use: 5 mg/cu m. Respirator Class(es): Any chemical cartridge respirator with a full facepiece and cartridge(s) providing protection against the compound of concern. End of service life indicator (ESLI) required. Any air-purifying, full-facepiece respirator (gas mask) with a chin-style, front- or back-mounted canister providing protection against the compound of concern. End of service life indicator (ESLI) required. Any supplied-air respirator that has a tight-fitting facepiece and is operated in a continuous-flow mode. Any powered, air-purifying respirator with a tight-fitting facepiece and cartridge(s) providing protection against the compound of concern. End of service life indicator (ESLI) required. (Canister) Any self-contained breathing apparatus with a full facepiece. Any supplied-air respirator with a full facepiece. /Mercury [except (organo) alkyls] (as Hg), other non (organo) alkyl mercury compounds/
    [NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997.193]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Recommendations for respirator selection. Max. concn for use: 10 mg/cu m. Respirator Class(es): Any supplied-air respirator operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode. /Mercury [except (organo) alkyls] (as Hg), other non (organo) alkyl mercury compounds/
    [NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997.193]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Recommendations for respirator selection. Condition: Emergency or planned entry into unknown concentrations or IDLH conditions: Respirator Class(es): Any self-contained breathing apparatus that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive pressure-mode. Any supplied-air respirator that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode in combination with an auxiliary self-contained breathing apparatus operated in pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode. /Mercury [except (organo) alkyls] (as Hg), other non (organo) alkyl mercury compounds/
    [NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997.193]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Recommendations for respirator selection. Condition: Escape from suddenly occurring respiratory hazards: Respirator Class(es): Any air-purifying, full-facepiece respirator (gas mask) with a chin-style, front- or back-mounted canister providing protection against the compound of concern. End of service life indicator (ESLI) required. Any appropriate escape-type, self-contained breathing apparatus. /Mercury [except (organo) alkyls] (as Hg), other non (organo) alkyl mercury compounds/
    [NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997.193]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Protective equipment: In areas where the exposures are excessive., respiratory protection was provided either by full face canister type mask or supplied air respirator, depending on the concentration of 3 mercury fumes. Above 50 mg Hg/m requires supplied air positive pressure full face respirators. Full body work clothes including shoes or shoe covers and hats should be supplied and clean work clothes should be supplied daily. Work clothes should not be stored with street clothes in the same locker. /Inorganic mercury/
    [Prager, J.C. Environmental Contaminant Reference Databook Volume 2. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1996.559]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Preventive Measures:

    Use disposable uniforms, so that a contaminated uniform is not a source of absorption through the skin. Preventative measure: adequate ventilation; careful attention to good housekeeping, eg, avoidance of spills, and prompt and proper cleaning if a spill occurs; all containers of mercury and its cmpd should be kept tightly closed; floors should be washed on a regular basis with dilute calcium sulfide solution or other suitable reactant; floors should be nonporous; all workers directly involved in the plant operation should shower thoroughly each day before leaving.
    [Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 3rd ed., Volumes 1-26. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, 1978-1984.15(81) 167]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Preventive measure: Adequate ventilation; Use of disposable uniforms, so that a contaminated uniform is not a source of absorption through the skin: use of disposable mercury-vapor-absorbing masks; careful attention to good housekeeping, eg, avoidance of spills, and prompt and proper cleaning if a spill occurs; All containers of mercury and its compounds should be kept tightly closed; Floors should be washed on a regular basis with dilute calcium sulfide solution or other suitable reactant; Floors should be nonporous; all workers directly involved in the plant operation should shower thoroughly each day before leaving.
    [Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 3rd ed., Volumes 1-26. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, 1978-1984.15(81) 167]**PEER REVIEWED**

    The worker should immediately wash the skin when it becomes contaminated. /Mercury (organo) alkyl compounds (as Hg)/
    [NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997.193]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Work clothing that becomes wet or significantly contaminated should be removed and replaced. /Mercury (organo) alkyl compounds (as Hg)/
    [NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997.193]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Workers whose clothing may have become contaminated should change into uncontaminated clothing before leaving the work premises. /Mercury (organo) alkyl compounds (as Hg)/
    [NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997.193]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Contact lenses should not be worn when working with this chemical. /Mercury (organo) alkyl compounds (as Hg)/
    [NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997.193]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Good industrial hygiene practices recommend that engineering controls be used to reduce environmental concn to the permissible exposure level. However, there are some exceptions where respirators may be used to control exposure. Respirators may be used when engineering & work practice are not technically feasible, when such controls are in the process of being installed, or when they fail & need to be supplemented. Respirators may also be used for operations which require entry into tanks or closed vessels, & in emergency situations. ... In addition to respirator selection, a complete respiratory program should be instituted which includes regular training, maintenance, inspection, cleaning, & evaluation. /Organo (alkyl) mercury/
    [Mackison, F. W., R. S. Stricoff, and L. J. Partridge, Jr. (eds.). NIOSH/OSHA - Occupational Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards. DHHS(NIOSH) Publication No. 81-123 (3 VOLS). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, Jan. 1981.3]**PEER REVIEWED**

    If employees' clothing has ... /become/ contaminated with organo (alkyl) mercury or liquids containing organo (alkyl) mercury, employees should change into uncontaminated clothing before leaving the work premises. Clothing ... contaminated with organo (alkyl) mercury should be placed in closed containers for storage until it can be discarded or until provision is made for the removal of organo (alkyl) mercury from the clothing. If the clothing is to be laundered or otherwise cleaned to remove the organo (alkyl) mercury, the person performing the operation should be informed of organo (alkyl) mercury's hazardous properties. ... Non-impervious clothing which becomes contaminated ... should be removed immediately & not reworn until the organo (alkyl) mercury is removed ... /Organo (alkyl) mercury/
    [Mackison, F. W., R. S. Stricoff, and L. J. Partridge, Jr. (eds.). NIOSH/OSHA - Occupational Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards. DHHS(NIOSH) Publication No. 81-123 (3 VOLS). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, Jan. 1981.3]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Where there is ... possibility of exposure of an employee's body to organo (alkyl) mercury or liquids containing organo (alkyl) mercury, facilities for quick drenching of the body /& an eye-wash fountain/ should be provided within the immediate work area for emergency use. /Organo (alkyl) mercury/
    [Mackison, F. W., R. S. Stricoff, and L. J. Partridge, Jr. (eds.). NIOSH/OSHA - Occupational Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards. DHHS(NIOSH) Publication No. 81-123 (3 VOLS). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, Jan. 1981.3]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Eating & smoking should not be permitted in areas where organo (alkyl) mercury or liquids containing organo (alkyl) mercury are handled, processed, or stored. Employees ... should wash their hands thoroughly with soap or mild detergent & water before eating, smoking, or using toilet facilities. /Organo (alkyl) mercury/
    [Mackison, F. W., R. S. Stricoff, and L. J. Partridge, Jr. (eds.). NIOSH/OSHA - Occupational Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards. DHHS(NIOSH) Publication No. 81-123 (3 VOLS). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, Jan. 1981.4]**PEER REVIEWED**

    If material not involved in fire: Keep material out of water sources and sewers. /Mercury compound, solid, NOS/
    [Association of American Railroads. Emergency Handling of Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation. Washington, DC: Association of American Railroads, Bureau of Explosives, 1994.678]**PEER REVIEWED**

    If material not on fire and not involved in fire: Keep sparks, flames, and other sources of ignition away. Keep material out of water sources and sewers. Build dikes to contain flow as necessary. Attempt to stop leak if without undue personnel hazard. /Mercury compound, liquid, NOS/
    [Association of American Railroads. Emergency Handling of Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation. Washington, DC: Association of American Railroads, Bureau of Explosives, 1994.678]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Personnel protection: Avoid breathing dusts, and fumes from burning material. Keep upwind. Avoid bodily contact with the material. ... Do not handle broken packages unless wearing appropriate personal protective equipment. Wash away any material which may have contacted the body with copious amounts of water or soap and water. ... If contact with the material anticipated, wear appropriate chemical protective clothing. /Mercury compound, solid, NOS/
    [Association of American Railroads. Emergency Handling of Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation. Washington, DC: Association of American Railroads, Bureau of Explosives, 1994.678]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Personnel protection: Keep upwind. Avoid breathing vapors. ... Do not handle broken packages unless wearing appropriate personal protective equipment. /Mercury compounds, liquid, NOS/
    [Association of American Railroads. Emergency Handling of Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation. Washington, DC: Association of American Railroads, Bureau of Explosives, 1994.678]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Preventative measure: adequate ventilation; careful attention to good housekeeping, e.g., avoidance of spills, and prompt and proper cleaning if a spill occurs; all containers of mercury and its compounds should be kept tightly closed; should be washed on a regular basis with dilute calcium sulfide solution or other suitable reactant; floors should be nonporous; all workers directly involved in the plant operation should shower thoroughly each day before leaving.
    [Prager, J.C. Environmental Contaminant Reference Databook Volume 2. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1996.559]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Stability/Shelf Life:

    Alkyl mercurials are very stable relative to aryl mercurials such as phenylmercury, which is rapidly broken down into Hg2+ in animals ... and the soil. /Mercurials/
    [Chang, L.W. (ed.). Toxicology of Metals. Boca Raton, FL: Lewis Publishers, 19961051]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Shipment Methods and Regulations:

    No person may /transport,/ offer or accept a hazardous material for transportation in commerce unless that person is registered in conformance ... and the hazardous material is properly classed, described, packaged, marked, labeled, and in condition for shipment as required or authorized by ... /the hazardous materials regulations (49 CFR 171-177)./
    [49 CFR 171.2 (7/1/99)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    The International Air Transport Association (IATA) Dangerous Goods Regulations are published by the IATA Dangerous Goods Board pursuant to IATA Resolutions 618 and 619 and constitute a manual of industry carrier regulations to be followed by all IATA Member airlines when transporting hazardous materials.
    [IATA. Dangerous Goods Regulations. 41st Ed.Montreal, Canada and Geneva, Switzerland: International Air Transport Association, Dangerous Goods Regulations, 2000. 183]**PEER REVIEWED**

    The International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code lays down basic principles for transporting hazardous chemicals. Detailed recommendations for individual substances and a number of recommendations for good practice are included in the classes dealing with such substances. A general index of technical names has also been compiled. This index should always be consulted when attempting to locate the appropriate procedures to be used when shipping any substance or article.
    [IMDG; International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code; International Maritime Organization p.6180,6181 (1998)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Cleanup Methods:

    Mercury spills should be cleaned up immediately by use of a special vacuum cleaner. Then the area should be washed with a dilute calcium sulfide solution. Small quantities of mercury can be picked up by mixing with copper metal granules. ... /Mercury/
    [Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 3rd ed., Volumes 1-26. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, 1978-1984.15(81) 167]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Mercury removal from waste water can be accomplished by these processes: BMS process; Chlorine is added to the waste water, oxidizing any mercury present to the ionic state. The BMS adsorbent (an activated carbon concentrate of sulfur cmpd on its surface) is used to collect ionic mercury. The spent adsorbent is then distilled to recover the mercury, leaving a carbon residue for reuse or disposal. TMR IMAC Process; Waste water is fed into a reactor, whereby a slight excess of chlorine is maintained, oxidizing any mercury present to ionic mercury. The liquid is then passed through the TMR IMAC ion-exchange resin where mercury ions are adsorbed. The mercury is then stripped from the spent resin with hydrochloric acid solution.
    [Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Mercury (Draft) p.59 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    SPILLED MERCURY CMPD OR SOLN CAN BE CLEANED UP BY ANY METHOD THAT DOES NOT CAUSE EXCESSIVE AIRBORNE CONTAMINATION OR SKIN CONTACT.
    [National Research Council. Prudent Practices for Handling Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1981.53]**PEER REVIEWED**

    1) Ventilate area of spill. 2) Collect spilled material for reclamation using commercially available mercury vapor depressants or specialized vacuum cleaners. /INORGANIC MERCURY/
    [Mackison, F. W., R. S. Stricoff, and L. J. Partridge, Jr. (eds.). NIOSH/OSHA - Occupational Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards. DHHS(NIOSH) Publication No. 81-123 (3 VOLS). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, Jan. 1981.4]**PEER REVIEWED**

    If organo (alkyl) mercury compounds are spilled or leaked, the following steps should be taken: 1) Remove all ignition sources. 2) Ventilate area of spill or leak. 3) If in the solid form, collect for reclamation or disposal in sealed containers in a secured sanitary landfill. 4) If in the liquid form, for small quantites, absorb on paper towels. Evaporate in a safe place (such as a fume hood). Allow sufficient time for evaporating vapors to completely clear the hood ductwork. Burn the paper in a suitable location away from combustible materials. Large quantities can be collected & reclaimed or collected for reclamation or disposal in sealed containers in a secured sanitary landfill. /Organo (alkyl) mercury/
    [Mackison, F. W., R. S. Stricoff, and L. J. Partridge, Jr. (eds.). NIOSH/OSHA - Occupational Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards. DHHS(NIOSH) Publication No. 81-123 (3 VOLS). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, Jan. 1981.4]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Cleanup: Mercury removal from wastewater can be accomplished by these processes: BMS process; chlorine is added to the wastewater, oxidizing any mercury present to the ionic state. The BMS adsorbent (an activated carbon concentrated of sulfur compound on its surface) is used to collect ionic mercury. The spent adsorbent is then distilled to recover the mercury, leaving a carbon residue for reuse or disposal. TMRIMAC Process: wastewater is fed into a reaction whereby a slight excess of chlorine is maintained, oxidizing any mercury present to ionic mercury. The liquid is then passed through the TMRIMAC ion exchange resin where mercury ions are adsorbed. The mercury is then stripped from the spent resin with hydrochloric acid solution.
    [Prager, J.C. Environmental Contaminant Reference Databook Volume 2. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1996.560]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Disposal Methods:

    Generators of waste (equal to or greater than 100 kg/mo) containing this contaminant, EPA hazardous waste number D009, must conform with USEPA regulations in storage, transportation, treatment and disposal of waste.
    [40 CFR 240-280, 300-306, 702-799 (7/1/96)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Mercury is a poor candidate for incineration. /Mercury/
    [USEPA; Engineering Handbook for Hazardous Waste Incineration p.3-14 (1981) EPA 68-03-3025]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Chemical Treatability of Mercury; Concentration Process: Biological treatment; Chemical Classification: Metals; Scale of Study: Respirometer study; Type of Wastewater Used: Synthetic wastewater; Influent concentration: 0-200 ppm; Results of Study: O2 uptake inhibited.
    [Lamb JC III et al; J Water Pollut Control Fed 36 (10): 1263-84 (1964) as cited in USEPA; Management of Hazardous Waste Leachate, EPA Contract No. 68-03-2766 p. E-53 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Chemical Treatability of Mercury; Concentration Process: Biological treatment; Chemical Classification: Metals; Scale of Study: Laboratory scale; Type of Wastewater Used: Synthetic wastewater; Influent concentration: 5-10 ppm; Results of Study: 51-58% reduction.
    [Ghosh MM, Zugger PD; J Water Pollut Control Fed 45 (3): 424-33 (1973) as cited in USEPA; Management of Hazardous Waste Leachate, EPA Contract No. 68-03-2766 p. E-53 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Chemical Treatability of Mercury; Concentration Process: Chemical Precipitation; Chemical Classification: Metals; Scale of Study: Pilot scale; Type of Wastewater Used: Domestic wastewater and pure compound; Influent concentration: 0.5 ppm at 4 gpm at pH= 7.0; Results of Study: High lime system- 70% reduction.
    [Maruyama T et al; J Water Pollut Control Fed 47 (5): 962-75 (1975) as cited in USEPA; Management of Hazardous Waste Leachate, EPA Contract No. 68-03-2766 p. E-72 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Chemical Treatability of Mercury; Concentration Process: Chemical Precipitation; Chemical Classification: Metals; Scale of Study: Full scale, continuous flow; Type of Wastewater Used: Domestic wastewater; Results of Study: 9 ppb: 71% reduction with lime; 1.2 ppb: 25% reduction with lime.
    [McCarty PL et al; Water Factory 21: Reclaimed Water, Volatile Organics, Virus, and Treatment Performance EPA-600/2-78-076 (1978) as cited in USEPA; Management of Hazardous Waste Leachate, EPA Contract No. 68-03-2766 p. E-72 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Chemical Treatability of Mercury; Concentration Process: Chemical Precipitation; Chemical Classification: Metals; Scale of Study: Pilot scale; Type of Wastewater Used: Synthetic wastewater; Results of Study: 500 ppb: 70% reduction with lime; 60 ppb: 94% reduction with alum; 50 ppb: 98% reduction with ferric chloride.
    [Hannah SA et al; J Water Pollut Control Fed 49 (11): 2297-309 (1977) as cited in USEPA; Management of Hazardous Waste Leachate, EPA Contract No. 68-03-2766 p. E-72 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Chemical Treatability of Mercury; Concentration Process: Solvent extraction; Chemical Classification: Metals; Scale of Study: Literature review; Type of Wastewater Used: Unknown; Influent concentration: 2 ppm; Results of Study: 99% reduction with high molecular weight amines and quartenary salts.
    [Dryden FE et al; Priority Pollutant Treatability Review EPA Contract No. 68-03-2579 (1978) as cited in USEPA; Management of Hazardous Waste Leachate, EPA Contract No. 68-03-2766 p. E-119 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Chemical Treatability of Mercury; Concentration Process: Activated carbon; Chemical Classification: Metals; Scale of Study: Laboratory scale, Isotherm test; Type of Wastewater Used: Pure compound; Influent concentration: 100 ppm; Results of Study: Carbon dose; % removal: 0 ppm 0%; 500 ppm 99%; 1,000 ppm 99%; 5,000 ppm 99%; 10,000 ppm 99%.
    [Pilie RJ et al; Methods to Treat, Control, and Monitor Spilled Hazardous Materials EPA-670/2-75-042 (1975) as cited in USEPA; Management of Hazardous Waste Leachate, EPA Contract No. 68-03-2766 p. E-165 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Chemical Treatability of Mercury; Concentration Process: Activated carbon; Chemical Classification: Metals; Scale of Study: Unknown; Type of Wastewater Used: Unknown; Influent concentration: 10 ppb; Results of Study: 80% reduction achieved with carbon dose of 100 mg/l. PAC plus chelating agent.
    [Thiem L et al; J Amer Water Works Assoc 68 (8): 447-51 (1976) as cited in USEPA; Management of Hazardous Waste Leachate, EPA Contract No. 68-03-2766 p. E-165 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Chemical Treatability of Mercury; Concentration Process: Activated carbon; Chemical Classification: Metals; Scale of Study: Literature review; Type of Wastewater Used: Unknown; Results of Study: 80% reduction by PAC and Alum coagulation.
    [Dryden FE et al; Priority Pollutant Treatability Review EPA Contract No. 68-03-2579 (1978) as cited in USEPA; Management of Hazardous Waste Leachate, EPA Contract No. 68-03-2766 p. E-165 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Organo (alkyl) mercury may be disposed of: 1) If in the solid form, by collecting for reclamation or for disposal in sealed containers in a secured sanitary landfill. 2) If in the liquid form, for small quantities, absorb on paper towels. Evaporate in a safe place (such as a fume hood). Allow sufficient time for evaporating vapors to completely clear the hood ductwork. Burn the paper in a suitable location away from combustible materials. Large quantities can be collected & reclaimed or collected for reclamation or disposal in sealed containers in a secured sanitary landfill. /Organo (alkyl) mercury/
    [Mackison, F. W., R. S. Stricoff, and L. J. Partridge, Jr. (eds.). NIOSH/OSHA - Occupational Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards. DHHS(NIOSH) Publication No. 81-123 (3 VOLS). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, Jan. 1981.5]**PEER REVIEWED**

    The following wastewater treatment technology has been investigated for mercury: Concentration process: Miscellaneous Sorbents. /Mercury/
    [USEPA; Management of Hazardous Waste Leachate, EPA Contract No.68-03-2766 p.E-202 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Occupational Exposure Standards:

    OSHA Standards:

    Permissible Exposure Limit: Table Z-2 8-hr Time Weighted Avg: 0.01 mg/cu m. /Organo alkyl mercury/
    [29 CFR 1910.1000 (7/1/99)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Permissible Exposure Limit: Table Z-2 Acceptable Ceiling Concentration: 0.04 mg/cu m. /Organo alkyl mercury/
    [29 CFR 1910.1000 (7/1/99)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Vacated 1989 OSHA PEL still enforced in some states: Hg vapor, TWA 0.05 mg/cu m, skin; Non-alkyl cmpds, Ceiling 0.1 mg/cu m, skin. /Mercury cmpd, as Hg, (except (organo) alkyls)/
    [NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997.367]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Vacated 1989 OSHA PEL TWA 0.01 mg/cu m; STEL 0.03 mg/cu m, skin designation, is still enforced in some states. /Mercury (organo) alkyl compounds, as Hg/
    [NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997.367]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Permissible Exposure Limit: Table Z-2 Acceptable ceiling concentration: 1 mg/10 cu m. /Mercury/
    [29 CFR 1910.1000 (7/1/99)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Threshold Limit Values:

    8 hr Time Weighted Avg (TWA) 0.025 mg/cu m, skin /Mercury, inorganic forms including metallic mercury/
    [American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. TLVs and BEIs. Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices. Cincinnati, OH. 2000.46]**PEER REVIEWED**

    8 hr Time Weighted Avg (TWA) 0.01 mg/cu m, STEL 0.03 mg/cu m, skin /Mercury, alkyl cmpds, as Hg/
    [American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. TLVs and BEIs. Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices. Cincinnati, OH. 2000.46]**PEER REVIEWED**

    8 hr Time Weighted Avg (TWA) 0.1 mg/cu m, skin /Mercury, aryl cmpds, as Hg/
    [American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. TLVs and BEIs. Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices. Cincinnati, OH. 2000.46]**PEER REVIEWED**

    BEI (Biological Exposure Index): Total inorganic mercury in urine (preshift): 35 ug/g creatinine. The determinant is usually present in a significant amt in biological specimens collected from subjects who have not been occupationally exposed. Such background levels are incl in the BEI value. /Mercury, inorganic forms, including metallic mercury/
    [American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. TLVs and BEIs. Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices. Cincinnati, OH. 2000.99]**PEER REVIEWED**

    BEI (Biological Exposure Index): Total inorganic mercury in blood (end of shift at end of workweek): 15 ug/l. The determinant is usually present in a significant amt in biological specimens collected from subjects who have not been occupationally exposed. Such background levels are incl in the BEI value. /Mercury, inorganic forms, including metallic mercury/
    [American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. TLVs and BEIs. Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices. Cincinnati, OH. 2000.99]**PEER REVIEWED**

    A4. A4= Not classifiable as a human carcinogen. /Mercury, inorganic forms, including metallic mercury, as Hg/
    [American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. TLVs and BEIs. Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices. Cincinnati, OH. 2000.46]**PEER REVIEWED**

    NIOSH Recommendations:

    Recommended Exposure Limit: 10 Hr Time-Weighted Avg: 0.05 mg/cu m, skin (Hg vapor). /Mercury [except (organo) alkyls] (as Hg)/
    [NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997.192]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Recommended Exposure Limit: Ceiling Value: 0.1 mg/cu m, skin. /Mercury compounds [except (organo) alkyls] (as Hg)/
    [NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997.192]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Recommended Exposure Limit: 10 Hr Time-Weighted Avg: 0.01 mg/cu m. /Mercury (organo) alkyl compounds (as Hg)/
    [NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997.192]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Recommended Exposure Limit: 15 Min Short-Term Exposure Limit: 0.03 mg/cu m. /Mercury (organo) alkyl compounds (as Hg)/
    [NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997.192]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health:

    2 mg/cu m (as Hg) /Mercury (organo) alkyl compounds (as Hg)/
    [NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997.192]**PEER REVIEWED**

    10 mg/cu m (as Hg) /Mercury cmpd (except (organo) alkyl compounds (as Hg)/
    [NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997.192]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Manufacturing/Use Information:

    Major Uses:

    Used in treating seeds for fungi and seedborne diseases, as timber preservatives, and disinfectants. /Methyl mercury compounds/
    [Sittig M; Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals p.420 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    The aryl mercury cmpd ... are used as denaturants in ethyl alcohol. /Aryl mercury cmpd/
    [Sittig M; Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals p.421 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    WHEN APPLIED TO SKIN & MUCOUS MEMBRANE, PHENYLMERCURIC SALTS INHIBIT GROWTH OF GRAM-POSITIVE & GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA, TRICHOMONAS, CANDIDA, & DERMATOPHYTIC FUNGI. /PHENYLMERCURIC SALTS/
    [American Medical Association, AMA Department of Drugs, AMA Drug Evaluations. 3rd ed. Littleton, Massachusetts: PSG Publishing Co., Inc., 1977.888]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Mercury compounds may be used in batteries (mercuric oxide), pigments (imported to the United States), catalysts, explosives (mercury fulminate), laboratory-based research, and in some pharmaceutical applications (ammoniated mercury and merbromin).
    [Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 4th ed. Volumes 1: New York, NY. John Wiley and Sons, 1991-Present.V16 (95) 212-28]**PEER REVIEWED**

    General Manufacturing Information:

    STATUS: THE EPA ... HAS CANCELLED ALL USES OF MERCURY SALTS EXCEPT AS FUNGICIDE IN TREATMENT OF TEXTILES & FABRICS INTENDED FOR CONTINUOUS OUTDOOR USE; AS FUNGICIDE TO CONTROL BROWN MOLD ON FRESHLY SAWED LUMBER; AS FUNGICIDE TO CONTROL DUTCH ELM DISEASE; AS IN CAN-PRESERVATIVE IN WATER-BASED PAINTS & COATINGS; AS SEED DISINFECTANT FOR TREATING SUCH FARM SEEDS AS WHEAT, OATS, BARLEY, FLAX, SORGHUM, & COTTON; AS A FUNGICIDE TO TREAT "SUMMER TURF" DISEASES; AS FUNGICIDE TO CONTROL "WINTER TURF" DISEASES. ALSO, SUBJECT TO THE FOLLOWING: (A) THE USE OF THESE PRODUCTS SHALL BE PROHIBITED WITHIN 25 FT OF ANY BODY OF WATER WHERE FISH ARE TAKEN FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION; (B) THESE PRODUCTS CAN BE APPLIED ONLY BY OR UNDER DIRECT SUPERVISION OF GOLF-COURSE SUPERINTENDENTS; (C) THE PRODUCTS WILL BE CLASSIFIED AS RESTRICTED-USE PESTICIDES WHEN THEY ARE REREGISTERED & CLASSIFIED IN ACCORDANCE WITH SECTION 4(C) OF FEPCA. /MERCURY SALTS/
    [Osol, A. (ed.). Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences. 16th ed. Easton, Pennsylvania: Mack Publishing Co., 1980.1207]**PEER REVIEWED**

    THE ACTION LEVEL OF 1.0 PPM TOTAL MERCURY IN FISH HAS BEEN REVISED ON SEPT 12, 1984 BY FDA TO APPLY ONLY TO METHYL MERCURY.
    [FOOD CHEMICAL NEWS (SEPT 17): 36-7 (1984)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    The development of mercurial fungicides was an outgrowth of the usefulness of mercuric chloride as a bactericide. Mercuric chloride was 1st tested as a seed treatment on cereals ... in 1915 ... /which/ paved the way for the concept of protective seed dressings ... However, the very poisonous nature of mercuric chloride prevented its widespread use until /the introduction of/ ... an organic mercurial, "chlorphenol mercury" in 1915, for use as a liquid seed disinfectant. From that time on, a succession of organic mercurials of varying chemical structures have been marketed ... /About 1930/ slurry treatments became popular with the introduction ... of a new type of organic mercurial, represented by methoxyethylmercury chloride, developed for use as a slurry treatment or its corresponding silicate used as a dry seed treatment.
    [White-Stevens, R. (ed.). Pesticides in the Environment: Volume 1, Part 1, Part 2. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc., 1971.19]**PEER REVIEWED**

    The mercury fungicides are generally applied as seed dressings used either as dusts or slurries containing from 1.5 to 3.2% metallic mercury for application to seeds of cotton, rice, wheat, flax, peanuts, safflower, and other crops.
    [White-Stevens, R. (ed.). Pesticides in the Environment: Volume 1, Part 1, Part 2. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc., 1971.23]**PEER REVIEWED**

    The organic mercury compounds can be divided into mercurials which are relatively stable, and those which rapidly split in the mammalian body. ... Methoxyalkylmercury compounds ... split rapidly in the body and are of toxicological importance. /Organic mercury compounds/
    [Friberg, L., Nordberg, G.F., Kessler, E. and Vouk, V.B. (eds). Handbook of the Toxicology of Metals. 2nd ed. Vols I, II.: Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., 1986.V2 389]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Formulations/Preparations:

    /FORMER USE:/ ... OF ALKYL MERCURY COMPOUNDS, ETHYL & METHYL COMPOUNDS HAVE BEEN USED AS PESTICIDES. METHYL MERCURY WAS AVAIL IN FORM OF SEVERAL SALTS: EACH SOLD UNDER 1 OR MORE PROPRIETARY NAMES INCL BIS-METHYLMERCURIC SULFATE (CEREWET), CYANOGUANIDINE OR DICYANODIAMIDE (AGROSOL, MORSODREN, PANOGEN, PANOSPRAY), NITRILE (CHIPCOTE), & PROPIONATE (METASOL MP). /ALKYL MERCURY CMPD/
    [Hayes, Wayland J., Jr. Pesticides Studied in Man. Baltimore/London: Williams and Wilkins, 1982.20]**PEER REVIEWED**

    The organic mercurial antiseptics are marketed in various types of proprietary solutions, tinctures, aerosols, creams, gels, glycerites, and ointments, and in powder form. /Organic mercurial antiseptics/
    [Gilman, A. G., L. S. Goodman, and A. Gilman. (eds.). Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 6th ed. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc. 1980.976]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Consumption Patterns:

    Electrical products such as dry-cell batteries, fluorescent light bulbs, switches, and other control equipment account for 50% of mercury used. Mercury is also used in substantial quantities in electrolytic preparation of chlorine and caustic soda (chlor-alkali industry, mercury cell process; 25%), paint manufacture (12%), and dental preparations (3%). Lesser quantities are used in industrial catalyst manufacture (2%), pesticides manufacture (1%), general laboratory use (1%), and pharmaceuticals (0.1%). /Mercury/
    [Kayser, R., D. Sterling, D. Viviani (eds.). Intermedia Priority Pollutant Guidance Documents. Washington, DC: U.S.Environmental Protection Agency, July 1982.3-1]**PEER REVIEWED**

    The world-wide mining of mercury (in the form of mercuric sulfide) is estimated to be approximately 10,000 tons per year, however, this figure changes from year to year.
    [WHO; Methyl Mercury - Environmental Health Criteria 101. Geneva NY, NY: World Health Organization. WHO Publications Center pp. 144 (1990)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Laboratory Methods:

    Clinical Laboratory Methods:

    AOAC Method 977.15. The analysis of mercury in fish can be performed with flameless atomic absorption. A digestion of the sample with hydrochloric and nitric acid occurs in a special apparatus which is connected to the spectrophotometer. /Mercury/
    [Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official Methods of Analysis. 15th ed. and Supplements. Washington, DC: Association of Analytical Chemists, 1990263]**PEER REVIEWED**

    DETERMINATION IN BIOLOGICAL MATERIAL. PHOTOMETRIC DITHIZONE METHOD. /MERCURY/
    [Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official Methods of Analysis. 10th ed. and supplements. Washington, DC: Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 1965. New editions through 13th ed. plus supplements, 1982.12/452-25.108]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Radiochemical method for neutron activation analysis of mercury in biological materials was developed based on combination of 2 precipitation steps. Applications to analysis of hair & foodstuff samples are presented. Quantities as low as 0.001 ug were detected in hair samples.
    [Biso JN et al; Radiochem Radioanal Lett 58 (3): 175 (1983)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    A METHOD FOR EXTRACTION, CLEANUP & GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY DETERMINATION OF INORG MERCURY IN BIOLOGICAL MATERIALS WAS DEVELOPED. INORGANIC MERCURY IS ISOLATED AS METHYLMERCURY UPON REACTION WITH TETRAMETHYLTIN. SPECIFIC CONDITIONS ALLOW DETECTION OF 1 PPB OR LOWER.
    [CAPPON CJ, SMITH JC; ANAL CHEM 49 (3): 365-69 (1977)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    A dual-stage atomization atomic absorption spectroscopy technique was developed to allow speciation of 11 mercury containing compounds in aqueous soln & biological fluids. The temp control used was not adequate for mercury salts extremely volatile below 200 deg C. Absorption traces of whole blood, blood serum, sweat & urine spiked with mercuric chloride indicated that the technique is useful for their detection. /Mercury cmpd/
    [Robinson JW, Skelly EM; J Environ Sci Health, Part A A17 (3): 391-425 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis) was used to detect protein-bound Hg in fractions of human liver separated by gel-filtration chromatography.
    [Norheim G, Steinnes E; Anal Chem 47 (9): 1688-90 (1975) as cited in Nat'l Research Council Canada; Effects of Mercury in the Canadian Environment p.195 (1979) NRCC No. 16739]**PEER REVIEWED**

    DETECTION OF HG IN FISH MUSCLE SAMPLES CAN BE MADE BY AN ANODIC STRIPPING VOLTAMMETRIC TECHNIQUE (ASV) USING A AU DISK AS WORKING ELECTRODE. GOOD AGREEMENT IS ACHIEVED WHEN COMPARED WITH RESULTS OBTAINED FROM NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS. /MERCURY/
    [GOLIMOWSKI J, GUSTAVASSON I; SCI TOTAL ENVIRON 31 (1): 89 (1983)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    The analysis of mercury in stomach content, vomitus, urine, or homogenized kidney is determined when a clean, copper wire, which has been dropped in an acidified test solution, is covered with a silver gray deposit. This wire can then be removed from the solution and the mercury thereon characterized by suitable reactions which produce characteristic colors. Quantiation can be realized by oxidizing away the organic matter in the sample and determining the mercury remaining in the aqueous digest. The test is sensitive to 30 ug of mercury, and estimates may be made at 25 ug intervals up to about 100 ug. /Mercury/
    [Sunshine, Irving (ed.) Methodology for Analytical Toxicology. Cleveland: CRC Press, Inc., 1975.Vol I 224]

    The analysis of mercury in urine is done colorimetrically using dithizone as a chelating agent. The absorbance of mercury dithizone is determined with a spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 490 nm. Samples of vomitus or gastric lavage can also be analyzed by this method. /Mercury/
    [Sunshine, Irving (ed.) Methodology for Analytical Toxicology. Cleveland: CRC Press, Inc., 1975.Vol I 226]

    Mercury in urine is easily analyzed using a flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometer, with a special mercury detector assembly. A commercial unit (Model MAS-50 Mercury Analyzer System from Coleman Instruments Division) designed to facilitate the analysis of various samples for their mercury content is available. The unit contains a circulating pump, a mercury light source, an absorption cell, a photodetector, and a five and a half inch meter calibrated to read directly to read from 0 to 9 ug of mercury. A scale expansion unit provides reading to 28 ug, if required. Response time is less than one minute over the full concetration range. /Mercury/
    [Sunshine, Irving (ed.) Methodology for Analytical Toxicology. Cleveland: CRC Press, Inc., 1975.Vol I 225-30]

    Analytic Laboratory Methods:

    NIOSH Method 6009. Determination of Mercury by Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption (detection limit = 0.03 ug). The working range uses 0.01 to 0.5 mg/cu m for a 10 L air sample. The sorbent material irreversibly collects elemental mercury. A prefilter can be used to exclude particulate mercury species from the sample.
    [U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods. 4th ed. Methods A-Z & Supplements. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, Aug 1994.]**PEER REVIEWED**

    AOAC Method 952.14. Mercury in food. Colorimetric dithizone method. /Mercury/
    [Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official Methods of Analysis. 15th ed. and Supplements. Washington, DC: Association of Analytical Chemists, 1990264]**PEER REVIEWED**

    AOAC Method 977.15. Mercury in fish. Alternative flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometric method. /Mercury/
    [Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official Methods of Analysis. 15th ed. and Supplements. Washington, DC: Association of Analytical Chemists, 1990263]**PEER REVIEWED**

    AOAC Method 974.14. Mercury in fish. Alternative digestion method. /Mercury/
    [Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official Methods of Analysis. 15th ed. and Supplements. Washington, DC: Association of Analytical Chemists, 1990264]**PEER REVIEWED**

    AOAC Method 935.67. Mercury in Mercurial Ointments. Titrimetric method. /Mercury/
    [Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official Methods of Analysis. 15th ed. and Supplements. Washington, DC: Association of Analytical Chemists, 1990511]**PEER REVIEWED**

    AOAC Method 957.20. Mercury in Ointments of mercuric nitrate. Titrimetric method. /Mercury/
    [Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official Methods of Analysis. 15th ed. and Supplements. Washington, DC: Association of Analytical Chemists, 1990511]**PEER REVIEWED**

    AOAC Method 977.22. Mercury in water. Flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometric method. /Mercury/
    [Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official Methods of Analysis. 15th ed. and Supplements. Washington, DC: Association of Analytical Chemists, 1990326]**PEER REVIEWED**

    AOAC Method 957.19. Mercury in drugs. Gravimetric method. /Mercury/
    [Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official Methods of Analysis. 15th ed. and Supplements. Washington, DC: Association of Analytical Chemists, 1990509]**PEER REVIEWED**

    AOAC Method 930.13. Mercury in organic mercurial seed disinfectants. Volatilization method. /Total mercury/
    [Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official Methods of Analysis. 15th ed. and Supplements. Washington, DC: Association of Analytical Chemists, 1990162]**PEER REVIEWED**

    AOAC Method 930.14. Mercury in organic mercurial seed disinfectants. Precipitation method. /Total mercury/
    [Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official Methods of Analysis. 15th ed. and Supplements. Washington, DC: Association of Analytical Chemists, 1990162]**PEER REVIEWED**

    AOAC Method 971.04. Mercury in organic mercurial seed disinfectants. Titrimetric method.
    [Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official Methods of Analysis. 15th ed. and Supplements. Washington, DC: Association of Analytical Chemists, 1990162]**PEER REVIEWED**

    AOAC Method 973.11. Mercury in organic mercurial seed disinfectants. Gravimetric method.
    [Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official Methods of Analysis. 15th ed. and Supplements. Washington, DC: Association of Analytical Chemists, 1990163]**PEER REVIEWED**

    MERCURY WAS DETECTED IN WATER BY SELECTIVE ION EXCHANGE CHROMATOGRAPHY. /MERCURY/
    [CLECHET P, ESCHALIER G; ANAL CHIM ACTA 156: 295-9 (1984)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    EMSLC Method 245.1. Determination of Mercury in Water by Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Revision 3.0, May 1994. /Mercury/
    [USEPA; EMMI. EPA's Environmental Monitoring Methods Index. Version 1.1. PC# 4082. Rockville, MD: Government Institutes (1997)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    OSW Method 7471. Determination of Mercury in Solid or Semi-Solid Waste by Manual Cold-Vapor Atomic Absorption. /Total mercury/
    [USEPA; EMMI. EPA's Environmental Monitoring Methods Index. Version 1.1. PC# 4082. Rockville, MD: Government Institutes (1997)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    OSW Method 7470. Determination of Mercury in Liquid Waste by Manual Cold-Vapor Atomic Absorption. /Total mercury/
    [USEPA; EMMI. EPA's Environmental Monitoring Methods Index. Version 1.1. PC# 4082. Rockville, MD: Government Institutes (1997)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    EMSLC Method 245.5. Determination of Mercury in Sediments by Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Revision 2.3, April 1991. /Total mercury/
    [USEPA; EMMI. EPA's Environmental Monitoring Methods Index. Version 1.1. PC# 4082. Rockville, MD: Government Institutes (1997)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    EMSLC Method 245.2. Mercury Analysis using the Automated Cold Vapor Technique. /Total mercury/
    [USEPA; EMMI. EPA's Environmental Monitoring Methods Index. Version 1.1. PC# 4082. Rockville, MD: Government Institutes (1997)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    OSW Method 6010B. Mercury Determination by Inductively Coupled Plasma - Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Detection limit 17 ug/l.
    [USEPA; EMMI. EPA's Environmental Monitoring Methods Index. Version 1.1. PC# 4082. Rockville, MD: Government Institutes (1997)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    OSW Method 7472. Mercury in Aqueous Samples and Extracts by Anodic Stripping Voltammetry. Detection limit 0.1 g/l.
    [USEPA; EMMI. EPA's Environmental Monitoring Methods Index. Version 1.1. PC# 4082. Rockville, MD: Government Institutes (1997)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    A METHOD FOR EXTRACTION, CLEANUP & GC DETERMINATION OF INORG MERCURY IN BIOLOGICAL MATERIALS WAS DEVELOPED. INORGANIC MERCURY IS ISOLATED AS METHYLMERCURY UPON REACTION WITH TETRAMETHYLTIN. SPECIFIC CONDITIONS ALLOW DETECTION OF 1 PPB OR LOWER. /Inorganic & organomercurials/
    [CAPPON CJ, SMITH JC; GAS-CHROMATOGRAPHIC DETERMINATION OF INORGANIC MERCURY AND ORGANOMERCURIALS IN BIOLOGICAL MATERIALS; ANAL CHEM 49 (3): 365-369 (1977)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Determination in Air: Collection on solid sorbent followed by determination of flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. /Methyl mercury compounds/
    [Sittig M; Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals p.421 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    DETECTION OF HG IN FISH MUSCLE SAMPLES CAN BE MADE BY AN ANODIC STRIPPING VOLTAMMETRIC TECHNIQUE (ASV) USING A AU DISK AS WORKING ELECTRODE. GOOD AGREEMENT IS ACHIEVED WHEN COMPARED WITH RESULTS OBTAINED FROM NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS. /TOTAL MERCURY/
    [GOLIMOWSKI J, GUSTAVASSON I; SCI TOTAL ENVIRON 31 (1): 89 (1983)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    A dual-stage atomization /atomic absorption spectroscopy/ technique to allow speciation of 11 mercury containing compounds in aqueous soln & biol fluids is described. Absorption traces of whole blood, blood serum, sweat & urine spiked with mercury chloride indicated that this technique can be useful in their determination.
    [Robinson JW, Skelly EM; J Environ Sci Health, Part A A17 (3): 391-425 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Determination of mercury by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometric method. The Contract Required Detection limit in water is 0.2 ug/l as defined by EPA. /Mercury/
    [USEPA/OST; List of Lists: A Catalog of Analytes and Methods p.312 (1991) OST Pub 21W-4005]**PEER REVIEWED**

    The method of choice for determining total mercury in environmental and biological samples is flameless atomic absorption spectroscopy (detection limits 0.5-4.0 ng/g). /Total Mercury/
    [WHO; Environmental Health Criteria 101. Methylmercury. International Programme on Chemical Safety (1990)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    APHA Method 3112. Detection of mercury by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry.
    [American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Warer Environment Federation. M.A.H. Franson (ed.); Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater 20th ed., Washington, D.C. 1998. 3-22]**PEER REVIEWED**

    APHA Method 3500-HG-C. Mercury in Water by Dithizone and Spectrophotometry. Detection limit 2 ug/l.
    [American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Warer Environment Federation. M.A.H. Franson (ed.); Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater 20th ed., Washington, D.C. 1998. 3-85]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Sampling Procedures:

    The sampling/preserving method of choice appears to be in pyrex glass containers using 5% HNO3 + 0.01% K2Cr2O7 preservative to prevent losses due to volatilization and adsorption on the glass. Samples treated in this manner have remained stable for more than 5 mo. /Mercury/
    [Feldman C; Anal Chem 46 (1): 99-102 (1974) as cited in Nat'l Research Council Canada; Effects of Mercury in the Canadian Environment p.193 (1979) NRCC No. 16739]**PEER REVIEWED**

    The collection of sample prior to analysis requires particular attention. The sample bottle whether borosilicate glass, polyethylene polypropylene or Teflon should be thoroughly cleaned with a metal-free nonionic detergent solution, rinse with tap water, soak in acid, and then rinse with metal-free water. /Metals/
    [American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Warer Environment Federation. M.A.H. Franson (ed.); Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater 20th ed., Washington, D.C. 1998. 3-3]**PEER REVIEWED**

    NIOSH Method 6009. Mercury. Analyte: elemental mercury; Matrix: air; Sampler: solid sorbent tube (Hopcalite in single section, 200 mg); Flow rate: 0.15 to 0.25 L/min; vol: 2 L @ 0.5 mg/cu m, max 100 L; Stability: 30 days @ 25 deg C
    [U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods. 4th ed. Methods A-Z & Supplements. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, Aug 1994.]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Special References:

    Special Reports:

    Nat'l Research Council Canada; Effects of Mercury in the Canadian Environment (1979) NRCC No. 16739

    USEPA; Ambient Water Quality Criteria Doc: Mercury (1984) EPA 440/5-84-026

    Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Mercury (Draft) (1982)

    USEPA; Mercury Health Effects Update (1984) EPA 600/8-84-019F

    A review of the available literature on mercury levels and toxicity in wild mammals (excluding marine mammals).
    [Wren CD; Environ Res 40 (1): 210-44 (1986)]

    Miller DR, Buchanan JM; Atmospheric Transport of Mercury: Exposure Commitment and Uncertainty Calculations, MARC Report # 14 (1979)

    WHO; Environ Health Criteria: Mercury (1976)

    NIOSH/OSHA; Occupational Health Guide for Chemical Hazards: Inorganic Mercury (1981) DHHS Pub. NIOSH 81-123

    de Flora S et al; Genotoxicity of Mercury Compounds. A Review; Mutation Research 317 (1): 57-79 (1994)

    Sirols JE, Atchison WD; Effects of Mercurials on Ligandand Voltage Gated Ion Channels: A Review; Neurotoxicology 17 (1): 63-84 (1996)

    DeFlora S et al; Genotoxicity of Mercury Compounds; Mutation Research 317 (1): 57-79 (1994)

    Synonyms and Identifiers:

    Related HSDB Records:

    1208 [MERCURY, ELEMENTAL; 7439-97-6]

    4487 [MERCUROUS OXIDE]

    1265 [MERCURIC OXIDE]

    33 [MERCURIC CHLORIDE]

    1175 [MERCURIC AMMONIUM CHLORIDE]

    1221 [MERCUROUS BROMIDE]

    829 [MERCURIC BROMIDE]

    1220 [MERCUROUS IODIDE]

    1211 [MERCURIC IODIDE]

    1243 [MERCURIC POTASSIUM IODIDE]

    1206 [MERCUROUS SULFATE]

    1247 [MERCURIC SULFATE]

    1188 [MERCURY OXIDE SULFATE]

    1214 [MERCUROUS NITRATE]

    1161 [MERCURIC NITRATE]

    5827 [CADMIUM MERCURY SULFIDE]

    1224 [MERCURIC THIOCYANATE]

    1209 [MERCURIC CYANIDE]

    1267 [MERCURIC POTASSIUM CYANIDE]

    1244 [MERCURIC ACETATE]

    6051 [MERCURY FULMINATE]

    1174 [MERCURIC BENZOATE]

    1199 [MERCURIC OLEATE]

    1311 [MERCURY (2+) NTA]

    3930 [METHYLMERCURY]

    1312 [METHYL MERCURY NTA]

    1551 [METHYLMERCURIC DICYANAMIDE]

    6424 [ETHYLMERCURIC PHOSPHATE]

    6387 [METHOXYETHYLMERCURIC ACETATE]

    6363 [ETHOXYETHYL HYDROXY MERCURY]

    2056 [PHENYLMERCURIC CHLORIDE]

    2506 [PHENYLMERCURIC NITRATE]

    1670 [PHENYLMERCURIC ACETATE]

    1223 [MERCUROL]

    3356 [MERCAPTOMERIN]

    6800 [MERCUROCHROME]

    Associated Chemicals:

    Mercury ion (1+);22542-11-6
    Mercury ion (2+);14302-87-5

    Formulations/Preparations:

    /FORMER USE:/ ... OF ALKYL MERCURY COMPOUNDS, ETHYL & METHYL COMPOUNDS HAVE BEEN USED AS PESTICIDES. METHYL MERCURY WAS AVAIL IN FORM OF SEVERAL SALTS: EACH SOLD UNDER 1 OR MORE PROPRIETARY NAMES INCL BIS-METHYLMERCURIC SULFATE (CEREWET), CYANOGUANIDINE OR DICYANODIAMIDE (AGROSOL, MORSODREN, PANOGEN, PANOSPRAY), NITRILE (CHIPCOTE), & PROPIONATE (METASOL MP). /ALKYL MERCURY CMPD/
    [Hayes, Wayland J., Jr. Pesticides Studied in Man. Baltimore/London: Williams and Wilkins, 1982.20]**PEER REVIEWED**

    The organic mercurial antiseptics are marketed in various types of proprietary solutions, tinctures, aerosols, creams, gels, glycerites, and ointments, and in powder form. /Organic mercurial antiseptics/
    [Gilman, A. G., L. S. Goodman, and A. Gilman. (eds.). Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 6th ed. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc. 1980.976]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Shipping Name/ Number DOT/UN/NA/IMO:

    UN 2024; Mercury cmpd, liquid, not otherwise specified.

    IMO 6.1; Mercury cmpd, liquid or solid, not otherwise specified.

    UN 2025; Mercury cmpd, solid, not otherwise specified.

    Standard Transportation Number:

    49 232 69; Mercury compound, solid, not otherwise specified

    EPA Hazardous Waste Number:

    D009; Mercury. A waste containing mercury may or may not be characterized as a hazardous waste following testing by the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure as prescribed by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations. /Mercury/